Nothing with these emails is ever simple. Not long after we arrived in London I started writing about our walking tour of the “square mile of historic London” and got sidetracked after Part !. Same with The Blitz and Southwark Cathedral. As for the St Giles Rookery, I have not even made it to Part 1. Too many side stories with all of the Dickens connections. When I finally returned to The Blitz story, and began researching its connection to St Mary-le-Bow Church, I came across the old nursery rhyme known as Oranges and Lemons. That just sent me off in a million different directions investigating all of the churches mentioned in the rhyme and their historic references. Too much, too much, TOO MUCH!!! I am going to try to visit all of the churches in the poem; they all have a story to tell. And would be great subjects for sketching.
Anyway, here’s a bit about St Mary-le-Bow; part of the poem and, because of its bells, part of the Blitz story. And some interesting bits of history just down the lane.
London Bells Nursery Rhyme
"Gay go up and gay go down
To Ring the Bells of London Town
"Oranges and Lemons" say the Bells of St. Clements
"Bullseyes and Targets" say the Bells of St. Margaret’s
"Brickbats and Tiles" say the Bells of St. Giles
"Halfpence and Farthings" say the Bells of St. Martin’s
"Pancakes and Fritters" say the Bells of St. Peter’s
"Two Sticks and an Apple" say the Bells of Whitechapel
"Maids in white aprons" say the Bells at St. Katherine’s
"Pokers and Tongs" say the Bells of St. John’s
"Kettles and Pans" say the Bells of St. Anne’s
"Old Father Baldpate" say the slow Bells of Aldgate
"You owe me Ten Shillings" say the Bells of St. Helen’s
"When will you Pay me?" say the Bells of Old Bailey
"When I grow Rich" say the Bells of Shoreditch
"Pray when will that be?" say the Bells of Stepney
"I do not know" say the Great Bell of Bow
Gay go up and gay go down
To Ring the Bells of London Town
The Sound of Bow Bells
“St Mary-le-Bow was thrown into great prominence because it possessed the principal curfew bell, rung at 9pm each day from at least 1363 and because it was the Archbishop’s principal ‘peculiar’ (i.e. although in the middle of London it was in fact in the diocese of Canterbury and remained so until 1850) – and hence the Court of Arches. The sound of Bow bell is that which distinguishes an area in which ‘Cockneys’ are said to be born. Although the famous pre-fire tower was at the south end of the site and not on Cheapside as suggested in some illustrations, St Mary-le-Bow was with St Paul’s the backdrop for jousting and processions (every monarch or consort until James II processed along Cheapside to their coronations).” http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/#/overview/4535876080
If you were born within the sound of the “bow bells” you are a “true Londoner.”
Tower Bridge crosses the Thames just above the H in the word SOUTHWARK and we are just next to Tower Bridge.
“Shrinking influence: A diagram shows, in green, the area where the sound of the Bow Bells reached in 1851, and in blue, the much smaller area that it reaches now. Sound of Bow Bells that define ‘true’ Londoners ‘are being drowned out by capital’s noise pollution’ Street noise now ‘twice as loud in London’ as 150 years ago”
“In the 14th century the term Cockney was used by rural people to native Londoners who relied on their wits rather than their strength. By the 16th century it suggested a lack of masculinity.
In time the term became synonymous with working class Londoners and it lost its negative connotations, but is occasionally still used disparagingly by those in the North to describe all Londoners.
The reference to the Bow Bells appeared around 1600 in Fynes Moryson’s ‘An Itinerary’ that said: ‘Londoners, and all within the sound of Bow Bells, are in reproach called Cockneys.’
Lexicographer John Minsheu was the first to define it in this sense. In his Ductor in Linguas (1617) he wrote: ‘A Cockney or Cockny, applied only to one born within the sound of Bow bell, that is in the City of London.’
Now it seems as if the definition of “being born within the sound of the bow bells” means whether your grandparents were born within the sound of the bow bells; not just you. I see a wide variety of people who all look different from each other, but to me sound exactly the same, “born within the sound of bow bells.”
We live about 1.5 miles from St Mary le Bow Church but we definitely can’t hear the bells. We can’t even hear the bells from All Hallows just next door.
St. Mary-le-Bow is the church of “the bow bells.”
Cheapside view and the courtyard with the statue of Virginia’s John Smith
“The Church of St Mary le Bow was one of the first re-buildings erected by Sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire of London in 1666. Its massive steeple, a square tower surmounted by four stories which reaches 235 feet into the sky, is a well-known landmark in the City, topped as it is by a weather vane in the shape of a sinuous golden dragon.”
“This was the district where boot makers worked in goatskin leather. The leather was known as Cordovan and the workers as cordwainers. A statue of Captain John Smith (1580 - 1631) a cordwainer who rose to become Governor of Virginia and Admiral of New England, was therefore appropriately placed here outside the church .” http://www.britannia.com/hiddenlondon/stmlebow.html
“He returned to England in October 1609 following an accidental gunpowder burn and became Virginia’s most effective propagandist and historian. He died in 1631 and was buried in St. Sepulchre’s Church in Snow Hill. The statue, by William Couper, was erected in1909.” http://www.cordwainer.co.uk/content.php?id=67
Bow Lane and the statue of the Cordwainer.
“Bow Lane runs North South through the Ward.It was formerly called Cordwainer Street and Hosiar Lane. In the middle of the 16th Century it was renamed Bow Lane after the St Mary-le-Bow Church at the northern end of the lane. St Mary Aldermary dominates the southern end of the lane. In between are several fine restaurants, pubs, wine bars, shops and other retail services, together with some businesses. The Lane was pedestrianised about ten years ago and has recently been resurfaced as part of the wide ranging street scheme enhancement programme. “
The Cordwainer Statue was a joint initiative by the City of London Corporation and the Ward of Cordwainer Club to mark the 100th anniversary of the Ward Club. It was funded [by]the Corporation, the Ward Club and some individual members of the Club and businesses. The bronze statue, the work of Alma Boyes, was unveiled in 2002 in a temporary location in Bow Churchyard. It was subsequently relocated to its permanent home in the newly paved area of Watling Street alongside St Mary Aldermary Church. http://www.cordwainer.co.uk/content.php?id=67
What is a Cordwainer…..?
“In the Middle Ages, the tradesmen of London began to form themselves into fraternities. Workers in metal, cloth, leather and other trades formed ‘guilds’ to present a united front for their craft.
Those who worked with the finest leather were called Cordwainers because their material came from Cordoba in Spain. They developed a soft, durable goatskin leather known as Cordwain – the very finest leather available – importation of which contributed to the growing prosperity of London. Over a period of time, those who processed the leather formed their own guilds. The shoemakers, however, retained the name of ‘Cordwainer’.
http://www.cordwainers.org/ is the guild’s website and tells a really interesting history. It certainly totally sidetracked me from St Mary le Bow’s story!
As Watling Street was mentioned as the home of the cordwainer sculpture….. we didn’t eat here because I thought their sign too snobby and ironic: the pub was built to house working men rebuilding St Paul’s Cathedral. But as one review said the food was good and there was a mix of suits and tradespeople, we might have to go one day.
My guess is the workmen rebuilding St Paul’s Cathedral after the Great Fire came In wearing site clothing and builders boots.
“A fascinating past
Said to be built from old ships’ timbers by Sir Christopher Wren, Ye Olde Watling has a remarkable heritage dating to 1668. It stands on Watling Street, a Roman road leading out of the City via Ludgate. One claim to fame is that our upstairs rooms were used as a drawing office during the building of St Paul’s Cathedral. We also think our pub catered for Wren’s workmen after the Great Fire. “
“On the 20th of December 1961 the restored bells of St Mary-le-Bow rang out to mark the start of re-building: one of the bell-ringers that day was HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The reconstruction effort cost £400,000 and the new church was re-consecrated by Bishop Stopford of London on the 11th of June 1964 in the presence of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. “
Interior of Mary-le-Bow rebuilt after the blitz.
“A number of chandeliers provide internal lighting but perhaps the most imposing internal feature is the vast gilt rood figure of the Crucifixion which is suspended above the nave. The rood was made by Otto Irsara of Oberamagau and was a gift from the German people to St Mary’s in 1964…… The organ was moved and rebuilt by Rushworth and Dreaper from the north-east corner to its present position over the western doorway in 1964. This inadequate instrument was replaced in 2010 by Kenneth Tickell & Company. “ http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/#/the-new-church/4535974636
“The north east chapel, perhaps intended by King to be a Lady Chapel now houses a bronze relief of St Michael and the Dragon by Ragnild Butenshon, placed in memory of Norwegians who died in the resistance to the Nazi occupation from 1940-45. The sculpture was given by the people of Norway (and unveiled by King Olav V in 1966) for whom the sound of Bow Bells, broadcast throughout Europe was a symbol of hope during the occupation.”
The BBC used a 1926 recording of St Mary le Bow’s bells for their radio broadcasts after the church was bombed.
“Founded in or around 1080 as the London headquarters of the archbishops of Canterbury, the medieval church of St Mary-le-Bow survived three devastating collapses before being completely destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. Rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, it was destroyed once more in 1941 but was again rebuilt and re-consecrated in 1964.” http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/#/history/4535373215
“Hanging Rood designed by John Hayward, carved by Otto Irsara of Oberammergau , a prisoner of war, and painted by Siegfried Pietzsch. “ This is according to Churches, Cathedrals and Chapels By John Wittich which came up on Google books but I can’t find elsewhere. The St Mary le Bow site confirms that Irsara did create the rood.
The rood was made by Otto Irsara of Oberamagau and was a gift from the German people to St Mary’s in 1964. http://www.stmarylebow.co.uk/#/the-new-church/4535974636
“In 1392 Dick Whittington heard Bow bells call him back to London to become Lord Mayor; to be born within the sound of Bow bells was the sign of a true Londoner or Cockney; and Bow bell’s authority ends the medieval nursery rhyme Oranges and Lemons – ‘I do not know says the Great Bell of Bow’. During the Second World War the BBC’s World Service broadcast a recording of Bow bells, made in 1926, as a symbol of hope to the free people of Europe. This recording is still used by the BBC as an interval signal. Today Bow bells ring out proclaiming the presence of a church which has been at the centre of London life since Llanfranc refounded St Mary le Bow in 1088.”
http://london.lovesguide.com/articles/st_mary_le_bow.htm tells about the bells of St Mary le Bow
Bomb damage to St Mary le Bow and to the entire area just east of St Paul’s Cathedral
“Bomb Damage from St. Paul’s Cathedral looking East. This photo was taken from the Golden Gallery of St Paul’s Cathedral in the aftermath of the Blitz. The view to the east includes Queen Victoria Street, Cannon Street railway station, Friday Street and Bread Street. The two churches featured were both heavily damaged in the attacks. Only the tower remained of St Augustine’s Church on Watling Street. The bells of St Mary-le-Bow on Cheapside had crashed to the ground. Police Constables Arthur Cross and Fred Tibbs photographed the scene that surrounded St Paul’s. Almost alone, the cathedral remained intact.” http://www..museumoflondonprints.com/image/139305/arthur-cross-fred-tibbs-bomb-damage-from-st-pauls-cathedral-looking-east-1941
The Bow-Bell Peal on Christmas Eve
This article is reproduced from the Illustrated London News, Dec 21, 1850 from the copy in the ASCY archives. http://london.lovesguide.com/articles/bow_bells.htm
We had a lovely lunch in the church crypt! My goat cheese souffle was wonderful.
Set in the floor in the center of the main dining area was this stone memorial.
That date is 1958!
“….the crypt of St Mary le Bow whose history stretches back almost to the Norman Conquest.
Built in around 1080 by William the Conqueror’s Archbishop of Canterbury, Lanfranc, the crypt’s architectural design incorporated arches. These were apparently the first such in London and gave rise to the Church’s name – “le Bow”. The street level was also lower than it is today so the upper part of the crypt was above ground level. Its walls still display evidence of the windows built to let in the light.
For the majority of its life the crypt was let out as storage space to local people. It was only after the Great Fire in 1666 – which it survived – that it began to be used for burials. Incorporated into Wren’s church of the 1670s, it once again survived both the devastation brought by the bombing of World War II and the rebuilding of the church at the end of hostilities.”
The crypt which sat (and still sits today) beneath the 11th-century church was the first arched crypt found in any church in London. The ‘le-Bow’ in the church’s name derives from those arches, and the Latin name Sancta Maria-de-Arcubus bears further witness to the importance of the arched crypt.
The c.1080 building was apparently one of the earliest stone churches in London, and the second tower of that church (completed in 1512) was crowned by five lanterns, four at the corners of the tower and the fifth held aloft on flying buttresses. In the 11th century St Mary-le-Bow was known as St Mary Newchurch to distinguish it from its near neighbour St Mary Aldermary (Older Mary) which is located at the end of Bow Lane, about two hundred yards to the south of St Mary-le-Bow. The City of London in those days was London; a densely populated square mile in which tens of thousands of people lived in close proximity and in a large number of tiny wards and parishes, each having its own parish church. The emerging suburb of Westminster was a long walk from London, through fields and pastureland, with villages like Holborn as stopping points along the way.”
And then, because you never know where research will lead…. And I must go look for a bottle…..
“Bruce Jack’s desire to ‘do things a bit differently’ has proven to be a big success, the latest introduction into the UK is Mary le Bow.
Mary le Bow is a farm-designate red blend consisting of Cabernet, Shiraz, Petit Verdot or Merlot and sometimes (in exceptional years) Cabernet Franc - all in varying proportions, depending on the vintage characteristics of the year.
This wine comes from the spectacular, top-quality wine farm called Wildepaardekloof ("wild horse valley"), tucked into the mountains high above the rural hamlet of Ashton in the Robertson wine ward. The aspect is South West and East facing. The soils are mostly devigorating, mineral-rich, ancient, decomposed granite.
Bruce has been involved with the farm since the re-planting program was undertaken by the Fraters in the 1990’s. The wine has been made since 2003. The Mary Le Bow Brand is owned by a Trust, the beneficiaries of which are the Frater and Jack children. The late James Frater and Bruce were close friends.
The origin of the name - Mary le Bow is named after St Mary le Bow in Cheapside, London. Famous of course for the big Bow Bell. If you are born within earshot of the Bow Bell you are a true Londoner - a Cockney.
Many sources put Mary le Bow as the oldest place of Christian worship in England. Much of this part of inner London was a fairly unstable marshland but, unusually, this church is built on granite, and the various levels of crypt are cut down into this granite. Many of the Crusades officially left from St Mary le Bow, and of course the remains of the knights who fought and died in the Holy Land were interned in the crypts. Angela Frater’s (James’s mother) distant ancestors were some of the last people to be buried there, hence the connection. “
St Mary Le Bow
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“In mitn derinnen “ was the expression I remember my mother saying when, right in the middle of something, I did something else. That’s what I’m doing now as in ‘the middle of all the stories I’m in the middle of writing, now I’m going to write this new one instead. My visit Friday to the Ideastore Library Whitechapel and the Whitechapel Gallery.
After the fire alarm……
Photos inside libraries are really discouraged; reading privacy and all that. I took this one while we waited for the fire department to make sure there really wasn’t a fire. Of course, when the alarm rang, I was on the top floor (5 stories up but here called the 4th as they call the bottom floor “ground” ) so had to walk down knowing I’d have to walk back up when we were allowed back in. When the alarm first sounded everyone just sort of ignored it thinking someone must have gone out a fire door and set it off. But it kept going so more folks started collecting their things. I was just getting mine when a staff member came and asked us all, “don’t you hear the alarm?!” So we walked down the 5 flights of stairs at a speed far too slowly had there really been a fire. The cause of the alarm? It pains me to say this, but some really “naughty” (library staff’s word) woman was smoking in a Lady’s Loo and set off the smoke alarm. Thankfully the sun was out and it only took about 20 minutes before we were allowed back inside…to walk up the 5 flights as there was a long queue for the elevator. Art books are on the top floor as well as the small café.
Street vendors line parts of Whitechapel Rd.
Across from the library and for several blocks along Whitechapel are the fruit, veggie and fish sellers. I bought some Brussels Sprouts because they wouldn’t crush in my backpack on the way home. So much cheaper than the upscale Waitrose across from St Katharine Docks. And more fun!
While waiting for the “all clear” I took the photos of the building next door which I sort of had read about from a previous walk along this route ( that I haven’t written up yet….yada yada yada.)
Albion Brewery Building http://www..eastlondonpostcard.co.uk/POM2004/Aug04.htm
HISTORY: The main Albion Brewery (this building next to the library) was further west on Whitechapel Road and began trading in 1808. The surviving buildings on the main site date from the 1860s and c1902-5 and are Grade II-listed. It was the Edwardian period that gave the brewery its most striking buildings, in particular the remodelled fermenting house which has a pedimented gable set between carved volutes, clock and a carved relief of St George and the Dragon, in what the Buildings of England volume for East London describes as a ’show-off Baroque style’. The architects were William Bradford and Sons, a firm which specialised in highly-decorative brewery architecture, and who may have also designed the building at 27a Mile End Road. Certainly the stylistic tag applies equally well here.
The first resident was Brewery Engineer William George Bartle, but the building also functioned as a distribution centre for barrels of beer. A motor trolley shed with a steel truss roof and ridge lighting was also built in 1905, accessed through the large central carriage arch to the house. At that time there was stabling and cart sheds dating to the 1880s to the rear of the new buildings. Shire horses were still the principal means of distributing barrels, but in 1904 the brewery had purchased its first ‘motor carriage’ and the new motor trolley shed was no doubt built in anticipation of growing use of motorised transport in place of dray horses.
In 1941 a bomb killed twenty-five horses, seriously damaged the stables and sheds, and removed the roof of the main building at 27a Mile End Road. The roof was presumably patched up until 1984, when the building was refurbished and a mansard and gable added to the upper storey. The motor trolley shed, old stabling and cart sheds were considered too badly damaged for repair, however, and demolished. Their sites were redeveloped with residential blocks by Proctor Matthews in 1999-2000.
SOURCES: Tower Hamlets Local History Library, Drainage Application Plan dated 21 July 1905 H Janes, Albion Brewery 1808-1958 (c1958) 80-81 Goad Insurance Plans
REASONS FOR DESIGNATION: The former brewery engineer’s house is listed at Grade II for the following principal reasons: * of special architectural interest as a flamboyant and richly-detailed building in the Edwardian Baroque style with mannerist touches; * high-quality stonework used generously and to good effect; * the building is sensitive to its context, with its upper storeys set back to respect the scale of the neighbouring C17 Trinity Almshouses and the cartouches on the arches referencing the style of these highly-significant buildings; * historic association with the main Albion Brewery buildings on Whitechapel Road, which are Grade II-listed.
http://www.rightmove.co.uk/property-for-sale/property-37021079.html ad for a £279.995 1 bedroom flat in this building. The photos made it look quite nice and just next door to the library, Sainsburys supermarket around the corner, fruit and vegies right outside and the Whitechapel Tube station steps away. And 1/3 the price of flats overlooking the Thames!
The Blind Beggar pub next door to the Albion Brewery
Blind Beggar Signboard
http://theblindbeggar.com/index.php/the-history tells the history on their website, but not as completely as my Folklore of British Pub Names book. The version below is the most similar and comes from a site explaining the coat of arms of Bethnall Greene, the area of London where the pub is located. (Bethnall Green is also part of Tower Hamlets as is St Katharine Docks Marina.)
“The borough had no [coat of] arms, but the design of the Common Seal adopted by the Council bears reference to the apocryphal legend of The beggar’s daughter of Bednall Greene, a lengthy poem which appeared in Percy’s Reliques of ancient English poetry in 1765, and was probably written in Elizabethan times.
The story tells how Henry, son and heir of Simon de Montfort, believed to have fallen at Evesham in 1265, was found and nursed by a baron’s daughter, who he afterwards married. Henry, blinded in the battle, dressed as a beggar to escape King Henry’s spies. Later his daughter, "pretty Bessee", had four suitors at once - a knight, a gentleman of fortune, a London merchant, and the son of the innkeeper at Romford, and all (except the knight) cooled in their affections when told they must ask the consent of her father, the poor blind beggar of Bethnal Green. The knight, however, went and asked the beggar’s leave to marry his daughter and, unknowingly, gained a considerable dowry, Henry giving Bessie £3,000, and £100 to buy her wedding gown. At the wedding feast it was explained to the guests who Henry really was.
The story, although almost certainly legend, enjoyed a wide vogue and must have had a basis in fact. Three plays on the subject are in existence, and printed versions have appeared in numerous editions. As far back as 1690 the theme was used as a decoration for the Beadle’s staff.” http://www.ngw.nl/heraldrywiki/index.php?title=Bethnal_Green
“The pub is also the birthplace of the Salvation Army, as it was outside the public house which previously stood on the site that William Booth, founder of the organisation, gave his first open air sermon in 1865.
The pub itself was built in 1894 on a site previously occupied by another inn. The pub is named after Henry de Montfort, a son of Simon de Montfort, the famous leader who called the first directly elected parliament in medieval Europe. Henry was apparently wounded and lost his sight in the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and used to beg at the crossroads, becoming referred to as the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green. http://www.tiredoflondontiredoflife.com/2009/11/drink-at-blind-beggar.html
And then there’s the modern day murder story connected to the Blind Beggar.
http://www.murdermap.co.uk/ Tells the story of a modern day murder ala Hatfields and McCoys style.
The statue of William Booth on Mile End Road just down from the Blind Beggar Pub was taken on a previous walk. I always thought of the Salvation Army as having begun in America.
My books from the library and also one from the Spitafields Trust Charity Shop.
I hadn’t checked out my books before the fire alarm but the kind library guard put them aside for me so I could retrieve them from the front desk.
Lady Audley’s Secret by Mary Elizabeth Braddon first published in serial form in 1861 I like older novels.
The Wapping Group of Artists: Sixty Years of Painting by the Thames for obvious reasons.
A Short Book About Drawing by Andrew Marr which I will hate to ever finish! He talks about why drawing and painting makes him happy even when the particular piece he’s working on turns out “rubbish” as they say here where we’d say “crap.” And how drawing is both great fun and hard work
“When most people are drawing or painting, under the quiet surface, there is a mental drama going on.” That captures exactly how I feel at my life drawing sessions.
The Spitalfields Crypt Trust http://www.sct.org.uk/ has a charity shop where I can find at least one or two books interesting to me. The Inheritance by Caro Fraser who has both an art degree and law degree so isn’t so fluffy as her book covers might make you think. The books are cheap and the money goes to a good cause. And sometimes I need a TV substitute and this kind of book is just that.
The interesting/obvious thing is that British libraries have more British authors/subjects not always available in US libraries so there are new authors/subjects to discover. Our Roanoke County Public Library does own Lady Audley’s Secret and Adrew Marr’s biography of Queen Elizabeth II, but not his art book or the book of Wapping Artists. Wapping is the area just east of us along the Thames. None of Caro Fraser’s books were in the Roanoke Valley Libraries either. Makes perfect sense when you think about it. Our regional authors probably don’t show up in British libraries either.
Whitechapel Gallery and the former Passmore Edwards Library (replaced by the Ideastore Library)
Whitechapel Art Gallery now expanded into the former Passmore Edwards Library. Listed Building. Gallery by Charles Harrison Townsend (1851-1928). Designed 1897, built 1898-9. Architectural faience cladding (glazed terracotta blocks), with some foliage-carving. Whitechapel High Street, London E1 7QX
http://www.whitechapelgallery..org/ free admission except for the special exhibitions.
For over a century the Whitechapel Gallery has premiered world-class artists from modern masters such as Pablo Picasso, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Frida Kahlo to contemporaries such as Sophie Calle, Lucian Freud, Gilbert & George and Mark Wallinger.
With beautiful galleries, exhibitions, artist commissions, collection displays, historic archives, education resources, inspiring art courses, dining room and bookshop, the Gallery is open all year round, so there is always something free to see.
The Gallery is a touchstone for contemporary art internationally, plays a central role in London’s cultural landscape and is pivotal to the continued growth of the world’s most vibrant contemporary art quarter.” http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/about-us
I enjoyed learning about the Acme Studios created from the derelict buildings in the area…
But most of the Gallery’s art is art I’m not familiar with so less appealing to me than works at other museums. But the building is interesting!
The gold leaves on the building’s façade were created by Rachael Whiteread
“Inspired by the tenacious presence of urban plants like buddlea, which the artist calls ‘Hackney weed’, Whiteread has covered the leaves and branches in gold leaf, making them part of London’s rooftop repertoire of gilded angels, heraldic animals and crests.”
http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/projects/rachel-whiteread tells how these leaves were created. There is a video interview as well.
Weathervane on the Passmore Edwards building
Rodney Graham’s copper and steel working Weathervane(2008) is permanently installed on the Gallery roof. It depicts the artist as the sixteenth century scholar, Erasmus, seated backwards on a horse while reading The Praise of Folly. http://www.whitechapelgallery.org/exhibitions/social-sculpture
About the Passmore Edwards Library
“Opened in 1892, an initiative of Sameul and Henrietta Barnett, and funded by John Passmore Edwards, it was the first free public library in Whitechapel. Open on Sunday afternoons to serve the local Jewish community, it became a place for study, homework and vibrant political discussion. Many early readers became famous, including writers Isaac Rosenberg, Bernard Kops and Arnold Wesker, mathematician Selig Frodetsky and child psychologist Jacob Fronowski. It housed a substantial Yiddish book collection, later replaced by books in Bengali and Somali. It closed in 2005, reopening nearby as an Idea Store. Many people mourned its closing and its significance was perfectly captured by Bernard Kops in his poem Whitechapel Library Aldgate East.” * see below
From Jewish London by Rachael Kolsky and Roslyn Rawson
Passmore Edwards in the East End
February 6, 2013 by Dean Evans
“ At the time of cuts to libraries and other vital social resources, Dean Evans author of Funding The Ladder – The Passmore Edwards Legacy takes a timely look at the forgotten benefactor who shaped the culture of the East End through his enlightened philanthropy.
……Canon Samuel Barnett and his wife Henrietta moved to St Jude’s Parish, Whitechapel, in the eighteen seventies when it was an over-crowded area of appalling poverty and poor housing, mostly endured by Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. The Barnetts set about to improve the conditions of their parishioners with missionary zeal, believing that “the social problem is at root an educational one” and that Free Libraries were the best means of education. When the Whitechapel Library was formally opened in October 1892, there were already more than two and a half thousand people making use of the reading room on a daily basis and one thousand on Sundays. It had taken Barnett fourteen years to see his dream materialise of the first rate-supported library in the East End. For Passmore Edwards it was the beginning of a relationship with the East End that was to last until the end of his days and result in more than a dozen public buildings, libraries, hospitals, technical institutes, art galleries, boys clubs and a home for foreign sailors, all freely given to help those less fortunate…”
http://spitalfieldslife.com/2013/02/06/passmore-edwards-in-the-east-end/ tells the story of the British Andrew Carnegie with interesting reader comments about the various Passmore Edwards libraries in their lives.
In the Whitechapel Gallery book shop I bought a copy of Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own which I read years ago but want to read again. It’s just the right small size to carry around and read bits of when I’m waiting for Randal in a hardware store or chandlery. When we visit free venues I try to buy at least something to contribute back. They are resting against my computer screen advertising the exhibitions now at the Gallery.
Bernard Kops was born in the East End of London. Since The Hamlet of Stepney Green (1959), he has written over 40 plays, nine novels, and seven volumes of poetry including Grandchildren and Other Poems (Hearing Eye, 2000).
This poem on Whitechapel Library is reprinted here by kind permission of the poet and publisher. Bernard Kops will read from his work at the Nelson Street Synagogue on 4 September at 6pm.
*Whitechapel Library, Aldgate East
How often I went in for warmth and a doze
The newspaper room whilst my world outside froze
And I took out my sardine sandwich feast.
Whitechapel Library, Aldgate East.
And the tramps and the madman and the chattering crone.
The smell of their farts could turn you to stone
But anywhere, anywhere was better than home.
The joy to escape from family and war.
But how can you have dreams?
you’ll end up on the floor.
Be like your brothers, what else is life for?
You’re lost and you’re drifting, settle down, get a job.
Meet a nice Jewish girl, work hard, earn a few bob.
Get married, have kids; a nice home on the never
and save up for the future and days of rough weather.
Come back down to earth, there is nothing more.
I listened and nodded, like I knew the score.
And early next morning l crept out the door.
Outside it was pouring
I was leaving forever.
I was finally, irrevocably done with this scene,
The trap of my world in Stepney Green.
With nowhere to go and nothing to dream
A loner in love with words, but so lost
and wandering the streets, not counting the cost.
I emerged out of childhood with nowhere to hide
when a door called my name
and pulled me inside.
And being so hungry I fell on the feast.
Whitechapel Library, Aldgate East.
And my brain explodes when I suddenly find,
an orchard within for the heart and the mind.
The past was a mirage I’d left far behind
And I am a locust and I’m at a feast.
Whitechapel Library, Aldgate East.
And Rosenberg also came to get out of the cold
To write poems of fire, but he never grew old.
And here I met Chekhov, Tolstoy, Meyerhold.
I read all their worlds, their dark visions of gold.
The reference library, where my thoughts were to rage.
I ate book after book, page after page.
I scoffed poetry for breakfast and novels for tea.
And plays for my supper. No more poverty.
Welcome young poet, in here you are free
to follow your star to where you should be.
That door of the library was the door into me
And Lorca and Shelley said “Come to the feast.”
Whitechapel Library, Aldgate East.
Written by Writer ⋅ September 17, 2005
I’d often noticed the name Passmore Edwards Library on the building but only now do I know anything about it.
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February 18, 2014
SKD Marina Tower Hamlets
As I said in the last email, I’ve a million stories started….but then I find I’m missing just the exact photo I need to show you so have to put it all aside until I can go back to wherever and take the exact perfect photo. Like today, for instance. We went to St Botolph so I could finish the story about the church bell poem which I got started on reading about St Mary le Bow from our Blitz tour. The poem is The Great Bells of Bow or Oranges and Lemons depending on whom you ask. St Botoloph is mentioned in the poem and as it has a connection with Boston and St Botolph is also a patron saint for travelers….well I had to go see it. But the website wasn’t as informative as the brochure I picked up on our way out, so now I have to go back for maybe more photos.
Just near St Botolph is the Artizan Street Library, part of the London City Library System. I was really desperate for something to read so luckily managed to find lots. I’m working my way top to bottom. (see photo) Guernsey had a sad history during WW2 which the book deals with. Early in the book Charles Lamb’s Essays of Elia is mentioned. I vaguely associated him with Shakespeare and he, with his sister Mary, wrote versions of the plays for children. What I didn’t know is this: “In 1796 Lamb’s sister, Mary, in a fit of madness (which was to prove recurrent) killed their mother. Lamb reacted with courage and loyalty, taking on himself the burden of looking after Mary.” http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/328472/Charles-Lamb I also learned there is a Charles Lamb pub at 16 Elia St. in Islington. If I ever find myself in Islington, I might have to go there. I might have to read the Essays one day. See what happens! It’s hard to read about anything here without being sidetracked to a dozen other things just as interesting. So by early evening my brain is tired, but alas, we have no TV to just veg out in front of. Luckily I have my books.
Tomorrow, if the weather cooperates, there is a walking tour in the Bloomsbury area about almshouses and housing for the poor. I’ve read a bit about the almshouses so this walk sounds quite interesting. We have the Friends of St Katharine Docks coffee in the morning but the walk begins at 1 pm so we should be fine.
I hope all of you who are dealing with the horrendous snowy weather are staying warm and safe. I don’t miss it one bit!
The caption on the postcard drawing of the organ reads: James Worgan , organist 1732-53 shows off the newly installed organ. Drawing by Martin J. Cottam. “The magnificent organ in the west gallery is by Renatus Harris, and was given to the church in 1702. It is the oldest playable church organ in the country and was restored by Goetz and Gwynn in 2006.” They do lunch time concerts as do most of the churches.
The drawing of the church is by Middleton. That postcard also mentions something called City Churches Walk 1995 : A walk around the 38 churches in the square mile of the City of London. I have been in a bunch of them and they are all different and interesting with long histories.
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Though thanks to the weather back in the States, other than those who love sports requiring snow, there doesn’t seem to be much to cheer about. Good grief! In London we seem to be having more rain lately. And wind! Thanks to our spot in the corner and our 34 tons, we don’t rock around as much as the lighter sailboats on the finger piers. They’ve had to put out extra lines. The water level in the marina is controllable so we have no flooding concerns. On what seems to be an hourly basis, the weather has been very changeable. Today Randal and I went for a walk during which we were rained on, blown along, and then blinded by the sun. But it was never cold. So here we truly can’t complain.
When I began the write up below I was going to call it; Just Do It. But then I started to do my usual bit of research and realized I needed to change the title to Southwark Cathedral Part 1.
And though it starts out with “Last Friday,” it was actually not yesterday, but a week ago. Time just goes!
Last Friday I made myself go out. Most days I’m quite eager to go exploring but there are days when I just get tired of choosing where I should go. We’d been on the boat all day Thursday, except for a 5 minute trip to the marina clothes dryers and a 10 minute walk in the drizzle to Waitrose for some vegetables. By Friday, being me, I needed to get off the boat and go for a walk. But where to go that wasn’t a major expedition or something I’d done dozens of times already? Mid-afternoon Singkey would be arriving from Birmingham so I only had a few or 3 hours. On my “to visit” list is the church of “St Botolph without Aldgate” because of its bells and connection to Boston, but Fridays it’s closed. I decided to make a first visit Southwark Cathedral just across London Bridge. Thanks to Vivien the Church Day Chaplain and then the kind lady who let me share her table in the church café, I had a really lovely time!
About Southwark Cathedral
“As well as being the Cathedral Church for the Diocese of Southwark, Southwark Cathedral is also a parish church with legal and pastoral responsibilities for the people who live in the parish….”
“We believe there has been a church on this site since AD 606. There may well have been a church here even earlier. Southwark Cathedral is the oldest cathedral church building in London, and archaeological evidence shows there was Roman pagan worship here well before that.
Significantly, Southwark stands at the oldest crossing point of the tidal Thames at what was the only entrance to the City of London across the river for many centuries. It is not only a place of worship but also of hospitality to every kind of person: princes and paupers, prelates and prostitutes, poets, playwrights, prisoners and patients have all found refuge here.
“Tired of renting their church for worship, a group of merchants from the congregation, known as ‘the Bargainers’, bought the church from King James I in 1611 for £800. By this time the large unwieldy parish church served a very colourful area, not only of merchants and minor courtiers, but also actors, foreign craftsmen, and the ladies from the Bankside brothels.
The church ministered to its parish throughout the 16th and 17th centuries and various repairs and alterations were made to the building. The state of the building became a real cause for concern in the 1820s. Already in need of further repairs, the whole situation of the building was affected by the proposals for a new London Bridge to be constructed much closer to the church. The Bridge Committee suggested that St Saviour’s be demolished and a smaller church be built on another site. After much argument the decision was made to restore the building, and it was largely due to the architect George Gwilt that major parts of today’s Cathedral are still standing.
By the mid 19th century, living and working condition in south London were intolerable. They were depicted by novelist Charles Dickens in distressing detail and by Charles Booth’s social researches with grim accuracy. It was proposed that a new diocese should be created and in anticipation for this a new nave was designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield in 1895.
St Saviour’s church became Southwark Cathedral in 1905. The diocese which it serves stretches from the Thames to Gatwick Airport, from Thamesmead in the east almost to Thames Ditton in the west. It has a population of two and a half million people, served by over 300 parishes.
Floor plan of Southwark Cathedral
http://cathedral.southwark.anglican.org/visit/virtual-tour is an excellent tour of the entire Cathedral and its grounds. Click on parts of the map to read about that area and see images.
http://cathedral.southwark.anglican.org/visit/usa-connections Click on the words South Churchyard on the lower left and read about the Cathedral’s connection to the United States.
East end and South Entrance…
There is no entrance fee; but there is a 2£ charge to take photos. Fair enough. The interior reminded me of a mini Westminster Abbey or mini St Paul’s.
Vivien the Day Chaplain was kind enough to give me a mini-tour.
Shakespeare Memorial and Window
Place of interest # 1 on the floor plan map.
Font and center with hanging iron chandelier between North and South Transept
The Cathedral is large but not too large or overwhelming.
Plaque for Wenceslas Hollar caught my eye so I had to do some research.
“He was a master etcher, and his work is still much appreciated by connoisseurs. He illustrated a number of books and produced the celebrated Views of London after the Great Fire of 1666. Some 3,000 plates are credited to him. He died in extreme poverty.” http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/269374/Wenceslaus-Hollar
http://www.radio.cz/ is the long story from the Czech perspective
“He is remembered here as his view was drawn from the top of the Cathedral tower. A native of Bohemia, Hollar lived in exile under the patronage of the Earl of Arundel. Hollar’s engraving gives a vivid picture of 17th century London. He is buried in St Margaret’s Church, Westminster. “
Engraving below of the Tower from Project Guttenberg; description from the British Museum
1647 Engraving of the Tower of London
“The drawing was made in pen and brown ink with watercolour over black lead. The view across the river Thames focuses on the square White Tower in the centre. In front of it, opening to the river through a low arch, is Traitors’ Gate. Prisoners entered the Tower through this from the river. Surrounding the Tower are the walls and buildings which made it an important prison and fortress.
In the foreground is a three-masted ship flying the English flag of St George’s Cross, which was customary for merchant ships. A few small boats row up the river to remind us how much the river was used for the transport of people and goods.
This drawing was made for a series of four etchings of views of London. These prints were presumably made to be sold on the English market.”
“In a career of some 50 years he produced almost 3,000 etchings on many subjects, normally with the uncomplicated naturalism which makes them such valuable documents of seventeenth-century life.”
https://www.britishmuseum.org/ from the British perspective
The plaques and memorials that line the walls of the Cathedral make for fascinating reading.
I thought this a humorous tongue twister until I real the last line.
This plaque for Isabella Gilmore caught my eye. I found her story quite interesting and very illustrative of the time she lived.
http://anglicanhistory.org/women/gilmore1924/ tells her story, often in her own words.
“The career of Isabella Gilmore, William Morris’ third sister. provides a fascinating
parallel to that of her famous brother. Isabella left a life of middle-class comfort and
respectability to minister to the poor of South London as a Deaconess in the Church
of England. She founded an institution which provided training for women to pursue
vocations as deaconesses among the underprivileged and was instrumental in
advancing the role of women in the Church. …….
After her husband’s death, Isabella returned to her mother’s home and then made
the decision to train as a nurse. This was strongly opposed by her family, but she
persisted and began training at Guy’s Hospital in London. ……
In the late 1880s, Anthony Wilson Thorold, the Bishop of Rochester, was involved
in a far-reaching reorganization of his diocese. Rochester was one of the most diverse
and unwieldy secs in Britain. It included large rural areas in Kent and virtually all of
London south of the Thames. Among the projects which Thorold wanted to initiate
for the diocese was an order of deaconesses to work among London’s poor.
Deaconesses had been revived in the Church of England in the 1860s but had been
tried in only a tentative manner in other dioceses. Deaconesses differed from Anglican
nuns in that they were ordained by a Bishop and worked directly under his supervision
as did members of the clergy rather than owing allegiance to a religious order. Thorold
believed that deaconesses could be a useful tool in the Rochcster diocese. He began
a search for a suitable leader for the organization, and Isabella was recommended to
him by her supervisors at Guy’s Hospital.
The night before she took up her duties, she visited friends and realized that they
«might never again see me again in my smart clothes." (R<JP) Isabella had committed
herself to serving the poor. The Morris family (with the exception of William and her eldest sister,
EmmaOld ham) were outraged at her decision:
‘I had many troubling times to go through with my relations, many hard unkind
things were said but it had been so before when I went to Guy’s & except for my
mother being angry with me, I did nor trouble very much, that did trouble me nor
only then but for many years & it was a great comfort that before she died she had
entirely forgiven me. ‘(RGP)
The first major hurdle Isabella and Bishop Thorold had to overcome was the difficulty of finding
a parish willing to accept the deaconesses in it. She later recalled, «I don’t think the clergy wanted it & fought
the institution being put into their parish."(RGP) South London was at that time known for the
Low Church attitudes of its clergy. Therefore, there was a built-in suspicion of the deaconesses, who were (wrongly)
thought to be associated with the Anglo-Catholic branch of the church. A
friend of Isabella’s asked her "[w]hat made the bishop put you in Clapham it was like shaking a red rag at a bull." (RGP)…….
The area in which they ministered was one of the poorest in London. The families the
deaconesses encountered eked out a miserable existence: it was an agony to find how terrible their condition was,
they were heathen, went to no place of worship & in the low parts the education act was a dead letter,
the sanitary laws were nil, the overcrowding ghastly & the dirt and poverty beyond
all words. (RGP)
The deaconesses discovered that in their destitution, these people did not understand
the most basic sanitation, they were "covered with vermin - indeed we always expect
co find rhem and rheir clothes alive." (RGP) The deaconesses found that they brought
fleas and lice back to the Institution. The children they encountered were often abused
and neglected, and alcoholism was rampant among the adults. Isabella deeply empathized with those she cared for.
"Often I think to myself what should I have been if [ had been brought up in such a hell as this?" (RGP)
The deaconesses provided a substantial aid effort. They ran a soup kitchen which
served hot food to the poor, distributed donated clothing and blankets, taught basic sanitary methods,
nursed the sick and gave religious instruction to the children. They also organized referrals to hospitals and other
charitable organizations. In coordinating all of these activities, Isabella displayed remarkable administrative abilities.
She was able to efficiently deal with the major logistical problems posed by
providing all of these services. The deaconesses worked 14- to 18-hour days, at the end of which they had to walk
from Bartersea to Clapham. Often they would be so exhausted that they would have
to support each other on the long walk back. (RC) They also were in danger from the violence endemic
to the slums they worked in. "Saturday afternoon & night Sunday & Monday were awful days
street fights & rows were going in every direction.’" Isabella recalled "once I was struck by a drunken woman & I
used to get abused when the poor things were half drunk." (RGP) The deaconesses were
frequently subjected to harassment, particularly by Irish Catholics. However, after a
time, they found that they’ would be defended by people in the neighborhood.
William Morris was deeply moved by Isabella’s devotion to the poor. He told her I
preach Socialism. You practice it. "’
http://www.morrissociety.org/publications/JWMS/SP96.11.4.Sharp.pdf is the complete story
http://www.londonremembers.com/memorials/john-walter The Sisters, home to the Deaconesses
The Bishop’s Seat… Once known as St Saviour’s Church; now Southwark Cathedral
“Now, as a Cathedral, Southwark is once again (as in monastic days) a centre for a pattern of daily worship within the English cathedral music tradition. In addition to holding five services a day all year round, the Cathedral provides services for diverse diocesan groups varying in size and style of worship. A cathedral derives its name from ‘cathedra’ a Greek word for the seat from which a bishop teaches and Southwark comes into its own as the bishop’s church when he ordains new priests and deacons, installs honorary canons and celebrates the Easter liturgy.” http://cathedral.southwark.anglican.org/visit/
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Many parts of southern England are a real mess, but our small bit of it remains unharmed; I guess mainly due to the Thames Barrier. Our friend Sandi’s home in Somerset is safe and hopefully our friend Jane in Richmond is also staying dry. I’ve heard that this is being one of the wettest winters in years; but compared to Marmaris I don’t find it so bad. I remember more rain in Turkey. Selective memory maybe.
This email introduces you to my friend Coleen. I met Coleen my first session at the Toynbee Art Club and we have been friends ever since. Half the fun of going on Sunday afternoons is the walk back and forth during which Coleen and I talk non-stop about our week or things we read or just stuff. Coleen has lived and worked in London her whole life so has loads of London bits to share.
Today we went off on a non-Toynbee adventure. Coleen cares for her grandchildren several days each week so her time is quite limited. But we had such a grand time that I know we’ll squeeze in at least one more date before Randal and I sail away.
Coleen chose today’s adventure taking us for lunch and a sketching session at The George! For a place I’d never been until late January, I’ve now been there 3 times. When we made our “date” Coleen planned for us to sketch the lovely balconies that line the outside of The George. I’d once mentioned that I wanted to draw outdoor spaces rather than people and The George would have been a wonderful subject. Alas, the weather didn’t cooperate. It was raining when we met and too chilly when the sun later deigned to put in an appearance. But no matter, we had a wonderful long chat and lunch and more chat and then we actually made ourselves sketch indoors. It was great practice and we had the entire upstairs room to ourselves.
My friend Coleen
We arrived before lunch was being served so just sat by the fire and dried our wet coats and hats.
Coleen behind the bar!
We were the only ones in the Gallery room so when the bar man left I talked Coleen into posing. Coleen was game for it so I really didn’t have to twist her arm.
I finally have a large pad but didn’t manage to use it wisely. I might finish some shading as I do have this photo to refer to. The rolled up menus are too short too. And the angle of the photo isn’t the same as my drawing. Other than that……
Rearranging the furniture to so we could have a photo standing under the portrait of Louis the #?
My big rubber barn boots.
I’m sort of scrunching down; Coleen is tiny!
Lucy and Ethel, Laverne and Shirley, Rosemary and Thyme, Glinda and Elphaba; but thankfully not Thelma and Louise.
I have been lucky enough to have almost a dozen women friends who, when I’m with them conjure up images of those zany women buddies.
Our very kind bar man who let us sit as long as we liked and laugh and sketch and then took our photo for us.
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Randal and I have been on a walking kick. Monday we walked about 5 miles back and forth to Queen Mary University and the Tower Hamlets Archives. Yesterday we walked about 5 miles back and forth to Charing Cross and the National Gallery. Today I’m actually happy to stay on the boat and finish this email as well as do laundry. And it’s raining so resting is a good idea. But not too much resting; we’re starting to run out of time. Our contract with SKD ends March 31.
I have about a billion emails begun, but then I realize I don’t know everything I want to know….and share….so I have to return to those places so the emails are on hold. For this one I just said, “the heck with it; it goes as it is and what I know now.” As always, I learn a great deal researching the photos I’ve taken so will probably at some point return to many of the places written about in this email. If I find some amazing stories, I’ll share them later.
As an aside, when we were in Tibet and Nepal, the World Cup was taking place and our traveling pals were cheering for The Netherlands so we followed along. Funny enough this year’s Superbowl went by almost un-noticed. Monday afternoon one of our fellow cruisers sent around this email.
“Hey all, I am very impressed/flabergasted. I believe we may be the only group of 10+ Americans (plus friends) who got together this Monday morning without one word of mention of Superbowl (Seattle won in a blowout.) Dick
Walk to Charing Cross
Starting off on a bright sunny day past the Walkie Talkie building on Eascheap
Great Tower ˃˃Eastcheap˃˃Cannon St˃˃Fleet Street˃˃The Strand as we walked to Charing Cross Rd.
Wall painting across from St Paul’s and the window of a candy shop
Wedding Cake Church : sun has gone and clouds have come.
Our friends Ed and Sue had told me several times about this “wedding cake church” so today when we walked by these St Bride signs I remembered what they’d said and peeked in. Randal had kept walking so I only took these few photos but will return one day for the tour they offer.
Read the history of St Bride’s Church and you learn the history of London. From Roman times to the Plague, The Great Fire and Christopher Wren, the origins of Fleet Street journalism, the horrors of the Blitz, labor issues in the 1980s and commemorations of the deaths of journalists covering the world today. http://www.stbrides.com/history/index.html
“THE CHURCH of St Bride’s is justly world famous. To enter its doors is to step into 2,000 years of history, which had begun with the Romans some six centuries before the name of St Bride, daughter of an Irish prince, even emerged from legend to become associated forever with the site.
The story of St Bride’s is inextricably woven into the history of the City of London. By the time the Great Fire of 1666 left the church in ruins, a succession of churches had existed on the site for about a millennium, and the area had already assumed its unique role in the emergence of English printing. It took nine years for St Bride’s to re-appear from the ashes under the inspired direction of Christopher Wren, but for the next two-and-a-half centuries it was in the shadow of the church’s unmistakeable wedding-cake spire that the rise of the British newspaper industry into the immensely-powerful Fourth Estate took place.
Then, in 1940, St Bride’s fell victim once again to flames as German incendiary bombs reduced Wren’s architectural jewel to a roofless shell. This time 17 years elapsed before rebuilding was completed, although a series of important excavations in 1953 amid the skeletal ruins, led by the medieval archaeologist Professor W. F. Grimes, came up with extraordinary results, uncovering the foundations of all six previous churches on the site.”
http://www.stbrides.com/history/index.html is the link to the complete story.
“Much has been written about the steeple,
the most romantic tale of which is surely
that of William Rich, apprenticed to a baker
near Ludgate Circus. He fell in love with his
master’s daughter and, when he set up his own
business at the end of his apprenticeship,
won her father’s approval for her hand in marriage.
Rich wished to create a spectacular cake
for the wedding feast, but was unsure how,
until one day he looked up at the steeple of the
church in which the marriage was to be held, and
inspiration hit him: a cake in layers, tiered, and
diminishing as it rose. Thus began the tradition
of the tiered wedding cake.”
Sign of “Ye Three Squirrels” caught my eye so then I had to some research. Interestingly it had a connection to Twinings Tea just down Fleet Street.
“Goslings Bank was established in 1650 at the ‘Sign of Ye Three Squirrels’, now 19 Fleet Street. It amalgamated with Barclays Bank Ltd in 1896, but is still known as Gosling’s Branch. …..
The Twinings of successive generations had banked with Hoare’s Bank, 37 Fleet Street from 1725 to 1766 and Goslings Bank, 19 Fleet Street from 1766 to 1826.” ………
In 1818, Richard Twining II and his brothers George and John Aldred of the fourth generation succeeded their father and uncle in the management, and in 1825 added banking to their tea business. The first entry in the Bank books was on 12th November 1825.
Fleet Street becomes The Strand just near the border between the City of London and the City of Westminster.
“With trading and banking ceasing to go hand in hand, Twinings Bank, which had been in existence for 67 years, was amalgamated with Lloyds Bank in 1892, and was known as Lloyds Bank, Twinings Branch, 215 The Strand, until 1895, when it moved to 222 The Strand and is now merged with Lloyds Bank, Law Courts Branch. For many years the cheques of this branch showed ‘formerly Praeds and Twinings’. Praeds Bank was founded in 1803 at 169 Fleet Street; it was taken over by Lloyds Bank in 1891.”
A quick peek into Twinings London : http://www.twinings.com/home.php
As the great Victorian Prime Minister William Gladstone declared:
"If you are cold, tea will warm you. If you are too heated, it will cool you. If you are depressed, it will cheer you. If you are excited, it will calm you."
In Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, the Mad Hatter’s tea party scene is an amusing parody of refined teatime niceties - where everyone talks, but nobody quite listens to what anyone else is saying.
"Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.
"I’ve had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone: "so I can’t take more."
"You mean you can’t take less," said the Hatter: "it’s very easy to take more than nothing."
One building that supposedly survived the Great Fire
Thai Square located in what is reportedly the only Strand building to survive the Great Fire of London
“This historical gem is the latest branch of Thai Square situated on the Strand, opposite the famous law courts. Formally trading as the famous Wig and Pen Club, this building is reputed to be the only one on the Strand to have survived the great Fire of London. Built in 1625, number 230 was the home of the Gatekeeper of Temple Bar who unwittingly began the catering tradition at this site by offering “pennorth of meat and bread” to the crowds who used to gather at the Temple Gate.”
Iconic images of London : red phone booths and red double-deck buses
Susan Hill, Virginia Woolf, and Florence Nightingale are my favorites on the King’s College wall of graduates.
“King’s luminaries past and present are now brightening up one of London’s main thoroughfares. The front windows of King’s Strand Campus show some of our most famous alumni, together with descriptions of the contributions they have made to science, politics and the arts.
The 50 head-and-shoulders images, which are up to two metres tall, are part of a ‘hall of fame’ stretching 90 metres between Somerset House and Surrey Street. They all represent people who have been associated with the College during its 180-year history.
They range from the first Duke of Wellington (who fought a duel while Prime Minister in defence of his role in founding King’s), and Florence Nightingale (who founded the College’s School of Nursing), through to current PhD student and three-times Olympic rowing medallist Katherine Grainger, and medical student Lynsey Gawn who has skied to the South Pole.
Other King’s characters on the Strand include five of the College’s nine Nobel Prize winners (among them Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Sir James Black), together with librettist WS Gilbert; Lord Lister, the founder of antiseptic surgery; Romantic poet John Keats; Bloc Party musician Kele Okereke; satirist Rory Bremner; Sir Ivison Macadam who established the National Union of Students, and Dame Cicely Saunders, founder of the modern hospice movement.”
Why Susan Hill ? http://thecaptivereader.com/ captures exactly how I felt reading Hill’s Howard’s End is on the Landing a captivating tour of English literature that I will keep as a course to follow for my own reading. Great for book clubs! She also wrote The Woman in Black which, turned into a play has been playing here for years and is on my list to hopefully see before we leave. There is a recent movie too.
Years ago I’d read Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own and being here near Bloomsbury has rekindled my interest. More recently when we’d planned to go up the Red Sea and visit Egypt (Pre-Somalia Pirates mess) I read about Florence Nightingale’s visit there during which she managed through her letters to convince her parents of her desire to have a life that wasn’t marriage and children.
http://www.leon-de-bruxelles..co.uk/ 24 Cambridge Circus, WC2H 8AA.
Cambridge Circus at the intersection of Shaftesbury Avenue and Charing Cross Road.
84 Charing Cross Road is no longer there. A Belgian restaurant (Leon’de Bruxelles) stands there instead.
The lunch special was soup or breaded whitebait and mussels or fish and potato pancakes. Both Randal and I ate the fish and pancakes but he had the whitebait and I had the soup. It came with “French bread” and a soft drink for 7.95 £ which is most reasonable for London.
Where the “City of London” meets the City of Westminster : small photos taken on a previous walk with Sue and Ed. And I think where Old Temple Bar stood.
Old Temple Bar
Temple Bar is the only surviving gateway to the City of London, where it once stood at the junction where the Strand meets Fleet Street for more than 200 years. A bar is first mentioned here in 1293, at which time it was probably no more than a chain (or bar) between wooden posts. Due to its vicinity to the Temple, an area where the guilds of lawyers organised into what would become the Inns of Court in an area that is now considered “Legal London”, it was commonly referred to as Temple Bar.
Since its conception in 1351, Temple Bar is mentioned throughout history, whether it be stories of victorious kings returning through its arches, its opening to receive the marriage of Mary Tudor to Phillip of Spain, or the passing by of the funeral cortege of Henry VII’s Queen, Elizabeth of York. Perhaps one of the most significant of state events, was the great triumphal procession of Elizabeth I in celebration of the defeat of the Spanish Armada. The Lord Mayor waited at Temple Bar to present to the Sovereign the keys of the City, which Elizabeth I enhanced by presenting the Lord Mayor with a pearl encrusted sword, one of five City swords. This tradition has been preserved for more than 400 years, and the ceremony now is carried out on major state occasions where the Queen halts at Temple Bar to request permission to enter the City of London and is offered the Lord Mayor’s Sword of State as a sign of loyalty
The site of Temple Bar was marked with the monument which still stands, a tall pillar with statues of Victoria and Albert, topped with a dragon.”
Somewhere I’d read about St Dunstan-in-the-West so when we passed by I stopped in.
St. Dunstan-in-the-West has a long and illustrious history. Visitors are often struck by how St. Dunstan’s differs in appearance and style to other Anglican churches. The church looks traditionally Neo-Gothic on the outside, yet is octagonal inside. The church narrowly escaped the Great Fire of London in 1666. The quick thinking of the Dean of Westminster saved the church: he roused forty scholars from Westminster School in the middle of the night, who extinguished the flames with buckets of water.
The Clock and Giants
St Dunstan-in-the-West was a well-known landmark in previous centuries because of its magnificent clock. This dates from 1671, and was the first public clock in London to have a minute hand. The figures of the two giants strike the hours and quarters, and turn their heads. There are numerous literary references to the clock, including in Tom Brown’s Schooldays, the Vicar of Wakefield and a poem by William Cowper (1782):
When labour and when dullness, club in hand,
Like the two figures at St. Dunstan’s stand,
Beating alternately in measured time
The clockwork tintinnabulum of rhyme,
Exact and regular the sounds will be,
But such mere quarter-strokes are not for me.
We buy our WiFi from 3 and are their best customers visiting them probably once each week. It is truly our biggest expense in London, other than maybe food.
The National Gallery on a sunny day months ago when I took this photo.
We stopped there to see Van Gogh’s Sunflower paintings. All free! We had to wait in-line but not for too long. Great art is amazing to see. No photos allowed but you can see the paintings on the website.
The Sunflowers offers visitors the unique opportunity to witness the reunion of two of Vincent van Gogh’s iconic ‘Sunflower’ paintings – shown together in London for the first time in 65 years.
Visitors will be given the chance to compare and contrast these much-loved masterpieces side by side, while also exploring new research about the artist’s working practices.
The paintings, one owned by the National Gallery, the other by the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (Vincent van Gogh Foundation) are two of the five versions of ‘Sunflowers’ that are now spread around the world (the others currently residing in Tokyo, Munich and Philadelphia).
The series dates from 1888, when Van Gogh left Paris to paint in the brilliant sunshine of the South of France, inviting Paul Gauguin to join him. Waiting for Gauguin to arrive, Van Gogh painted a series of pictures of sunflowers to decorate his friend’s bedroom. They were meant as a sign of friendship and welcome, but also of Vincent’s allegiance to Gauguin as his artistic leader. The pair worked together throughout autumn 1888 – but it ended very badly at the close of the year when Van Gogh seemed to have a nervous breakdown, famously cut off part of his ear and entered an asylum.
The display will also include the results of recent scientific research into the two paintings carried out by both institutions. These investigations have revealed new insights into how Van Gogh painted his ‘Sunflowers’ and what materials he used – giving us a deeper understanding of the making and meaning of these works of art, and of their relationship to each other.
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Here is a cheery break from The Blitz.
We’re often asked which of our stops along the way have been favorites. My answer is, those where the place is fascinating or the people we meet really great. Some places have both. London is one of those place that has both. Here are some of the people that have and continue to make our time here special. Some are visitors from abroad and some live here in London. One person, not in this email, is Coleen, my life drawing comrade. She will be featured in a separate email as we’re planning an adventure in early February.
And for our Chinese friends 新年快樂 Gong Xi Fa Cai or Gong Hey Fat Choy
One of the best parts of travel is the people you meet along the way. And though saying good-bye is always difficult, life is proving that good-bye is only “for the time being.” I guess that’s what makes cruisers cruise, they like to travel so chances are they’ll turn up somewhere down the road. Before we even arrived in London cruising friends Steve and Valerie met up with us in Gosport for the day. Then later Valerie came to London for a few wonderful days of touring with me. And finally the four of us, Steve, Valerie, Randal and I had a lovely day in Greenwich.
We’ve had several visitors from our hometown, Roanoke! First our Roanoke bike club friend John spent about a week with us in early September. Next were our Roanoke friends Jane and Peter, here in the UK for Peter’s work. They came for dinner one night and the next day Jane and I went touring. And in December, our friend Julia, originally met through the Blue Ridge Bicycle Club came to visit. Just recently our Roanoke friend Sue stopped by to see DoraMac and then Sue and I went off to see some sights.
Also in January, one of the very first cruising couples we met, spent a night with us : Peter and Kathy from Waverunner. I can’t wait until we actually have that home in Roanoke so friends from everywhere can come to visit us.
Julia and her dad Mike on DoraMac
Off for a walk and late lunch in London; Mike in his Virginia Tech hat
Julia lives on Cape Cod, MA now. Her dad lives in Bournemouth here in the UK.
Julia is originally from England but moved to the Virginia back in the 90s where we met her through the Bike Club. Julia lives on Cape Cod now where we have visited with her several times while home but this is the first time she has visited us on DoraMac. Julia was in England to spend Christmas with family and friends.
Kathy and Peter from Waverunner
At the Borough Market : ‘say cheese!”
We first met New Zealanders Kathy and Peter in Nongsa Point Marina in Indonesia October 2008 making them some of our longest –time cruising friends. We were together in Malaysia in Johor and Rebak and in Turkey in Marmaris. They are wintering in Marmaris before heading back to New Zealand this year, but came to England to visit a variety of friends spread around England.
Roanoke friend Sue was in London visiting her mom who, at 98, just wasn’t up for the trip from her flat to SKD.
Like our friend Julia, Sue is English by birth but has lived in Roanoke for years. She and my sister met in nursing school where Sue was getting her US certification. Sue attended boarding school in the UK and nursing school in London; but while she was here I showed her around my places. Sue had her first walk across the Millennium Bridge. And her first visit to The George Inn
“The George Inn is an antiquated inn; a delightful, albeit dark rabbit warren of rooms, narrow passages, mysterious landings and steep stairways with links to Shakespeare, Dickens and Chaucer. In Charles Dickens’ novel, ‘Little Dorrit’, young ‘Tip goes into the George to write begging letters’. …….
For centuries, London Bridge was the only way of crossing between Southwark and the City of London. Due to this strategic positioning, Southwark became not only a suburb of the city, but a market town in it’s own right and for much of it’s history there was conflict between the City and the local authorities; a frequent bone of contention was the question of who had right to licence the town’s inns and alehouses.
Travellers found it easier to conduct their business in Southwark and frequently stayed overnight.
The George Inn is the last survivor of the ancient inns which once lined Southwark High Street, refreshing merrymakers at Southwark Fair, playgoers from the Bankside theatres and coach passengers on their way to London.
Also in the courtyard of the George Inn was this plaque. Sue and I walked past Guy’s on our “short-cuts” towards Tower Bridge after lunch.
http://archive.museumoflondon.org.uk/LSS/Map/Enslavement/People/119.htm tells the rather sad story of how the money to endow the hospital came from Guy’s speculation in the African slave trade.
A mix of friends at the Turks Head Pub
We met John and Mary in North Cyprus at the Karpaz Gate Marina. John is English by birth, Mary American. They are wintering in Turkey but were here in England to visit John’s family. John’s sister lives in Ipswich so he and Mary took the train to London to visit with us. We ate lunch at the Turks Head run by Leila and her staff, whose name I must learn nest visit.
Here I am with my Cousin Pam! Our great-great grandfathers were brothers.
Pam’s settled in England and mine went on to the US. One brother went to Australia! Quite the variety of English spoken in our families.
Pam lives in Chiswick which is one of the last stops west on the District Line making it easy for me to go visit. We spent a “too short” 3 hours catching up. Our travels pale compared to Pam’s. She has been to Antarctica, the Galapagos, Machu Picchu, climbed the Great Wall….. Hopefully there will be time for one more visit before Randal and I leave London.
Jane and Ros
It’s a funny story why we know Jane. Jane’s friends Susie and David caught our boat lines in Nisyros Greece. They live in/near London so we said, “come visit us” and gave them our card. Susie and David did come visit us at SKD and brought their friends Jane and Richard who live just outside London. All such interesting and interested people we had a lovely visit. In early January Jane was kind enough to take me to the Klee exhibit as she is a member of the Tate. Yesterday she came to visit us with her long-time art college friend Ros. Ros and her partner Simon, also an artist, live on a Dutch barge in Suffolk. Ros, who until recently, also taught art in colleges in London, has a flat in Spitalfields and was in London for the day so Jane came in to visit her and both came to visit us. Ros and her partner Simon have just bought some land to make their move from life on the water so we had lots of interesting discussions about lots.
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A while back now, Randal and I joined a www.walks.com tour called The Blitz. 1n 1969 Randal was a Marine in Vietnam. I have never had to deal with the fears of war. While in Israel we did hear distant bombing, had bags searched in every place people congregated like malls and bus stations, and saw young members of the military with their rifles everywhere. But we weren’t afraid and really had no worries, especially, as had there been major troubles, we could have left it all behind.
In Sicily, in Palermo, bombed buildings are still visible. Most bomb damage here in London seems to have been rebuilt. Bits have been left as historical evidence such as melted lead in All Hallows Church or chips out of buildings. So for me, our blitz tour walk was an intellectual exercise not an emotional one. Everything we saw was rebuilt and shiny though not without controversy. If you are like me and have been lucky enough never to have had the experience of hearing bombs dropping on your home or as you walked through the streets, or have parents or grandparents who had to deal with it, then you can only be thankful. I don’t think you can really understand it. Pictures do tell a story though so I’ve taken some from various websites to post with this email.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/christmas_in_world_war_two#p00cyd3y video clip about the saving of St Paul’s.
http://www.thebeadlesoflondon.com/Pages/TheBeadleatWar.aspx interesting photos and story about people trying to save buildings in the area
World War II in Photos A Retrospective in 20 parts
“A Nazi Heinkel He 111 bomber flies over London in the autumn of 1940. The Thames River runs through the image. (AP Photo/British Official Photo) # “
“A boy sits amid the ruins of a London bookshop following an air raid on October 8, 1940, reading a book titled "The History of London." (AP Photo) #”
“In the summer and autumn of 1940, Germany’s Luftwaffe conducted thousands of bombing runs, attacking military and civilian targets across the United Kingdom. Hitler’s forces, in an attempt to achieve air superiority, were preparing for an invasion of Britain code-named "Operation Sea Lion." At first, they bombed only military and industrial targets. But after the Royal Air Force hit Berlin with retaliatory strikes in September, the Germans began bombing British civilian centers. Some 23,000 British civilians were killed between July and December 1940. Thousands of pilots and air crews engaged in battle in the skies above Britain, Germany, and the English Channel, each side losing more than 1,500 aircraft by the end of the year. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, speaking of the British pilots in an August speech, said, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few." The British defenses held, and Hitler quietly canceled Operation Sea Lion in October, though bombing raids continued long after. (This entry is Part 4 of a weekly 20-part retrospective of World War II) [45 photos]”
Paternoster Square destroyed during the blitz
SILVER GELATIN PRINT City bomb damage, Paternoster Square during the Blitz World War II bomb damage to the west side of Paternoster Square, looking towards St. Paul’s Cathedral, caused by the German bombing raid on the City of London on the night of 29 december 1940. Maker:Cross, Arthur (photographer); Tibbs, Fred (photographer) Production Date:1940-12-29 ID no:IN6898 - See more at: http://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/
Virginia Woolf writes about her experience in the blitz
Tuesday 10 September 
“Back from half a day in London - perhaps our strangest visit. Mecklenburgh Square roped off. Wardens there, not allowd in. The house about thirty yards from ours struck at one this morning by a bomb. Completely ruined. Another bomb in the Square still unexploded. We walked round the back. The house was still smouldering. That is a great pile of bricks. Underneath all the people who had gone down to their shelter. Scraps of cloth hanging to the bare walls at the side still standing. A looking glass I think swinging. Like a tooth knocked out - a clean cut. Our house undamaged. The garage man at the back - blear eyed and jerky - told us he had been blown out of his bed by the explosion; made to take shelter in a church. He said the Jerrys had been over for three nights trying to bomb King’s Cross. So we went on to Gray’s Inn. Left the car and saw Holborn. A vast gap at the top of Chancery Lane. Smoking still. Some great shop entirely destroyed: the hotel opposite like a shell. Heaps of blue green glass in the road at Chancery Lane. Men breaking off fragments left in the frames. Then to the New Statesman office: windows broken, but house untouched. We went over it. Deserted. Wet passages. Glass on stairs. Doors locked. So back to the car. A great block of traffic. The cinema behind Mme Tussaud’s torn open: the stage visible; some decoration swinging. All the Regent’s Park houses with broken windows, but undamaged. And then miles and miles of ordinary streets - all Bayswater - as usual. Streets empty. Faces set and eyes bleared. Then at Wimbledon a siren - people began running. We drove, through almost empty streets, as fast as possible. Horses taken out of the shafts. Cars pulled up. The people I think of now are the very grimy [Bloomsbury] lodging house keepers; with another night to face: old wretched women standing at their doors; dirty, miserable. Well - as Nessa said on the phone, it’s coming very near.
Sunday 20 October 
The most - what? - impressive, no that’s not it - sight in London on Friday was the queue, mostly children with suitcases, outside Warren Street tube. This was about 11.30. We thought they were evacuees, waiting for a bus. But there they were, in a much longer line, with women, men, more bags and blankets, sitting still at 3. Lining up for the shelter in the night’s raid - which came of course. To Tavistock Square. With a sigh of relief saw a heap of ruins. Three houses, I should say, gone. Basement all rubble. Only relics an old basket chair (bought in Fitzroy Square days) and Penman’s board TO LET. Otherwise bricks and wood splinters. I could just see a piece of my studio wall standing: otherwise rubble where I wrote so many books. Open air where we sat so many nights, gave so many parties. So to Meck[lenburgh Square]. All again litter, glass, black soft dust, plaster and powder. Books all over dining room floor. Only the drawing room with windows almost whole. A wind blowing through. I began to hunt out diaries. What could we salvage in this little car? Darwin, and the silver, and some glass and china. Then lunch off tongue, in the drawing room. John came. I forgot The Voyage of the Beagle. No raid the whole day. So about 2.30 drove home. Cheered on the whole by London. Damage in Bloomsbury considerable. But miles and miles of Hyde Park and Queen’s Gate untouched. Now we seem quit of London. Exhilaration at losing possessions - save at times I want my books and chairs and carpets and beds - how I worked to buy them - one by one - And the pictures. But to be free of Meck. would now be a relief. But it’s odd - the relief at losing possessions. I should like to start life, in peace, almost bare - free to go anywhere.
Virginia Woolf, Her Diary
Our tour focused in the area around St Paul’s
We met at the St Paul’s tube station. Just outside was this bas relief which has no connection to the Blitz but has an interesting story of its own.
The Panyer Boy
“ ‘When ye have sought the citty round yet this is still the highest ground.’ This alley was once the centre of London’s bakeries and said (wrongly) to be its highest point. This boy on his breadbasket has been hereabouts since 1688 and now sits just beside St Paul’s Tube Station.”
Panyer Alley EC4
Tube: St Paul’s http://www.secret-london.co.uk/Other_Oddities.html
“ Every informed source agrees that the bas-relief mounted on a wall in Panyer Alley is a cherished heirloom of the City of London. But there the concord ceases. The scale and scope of the disputes regarding the provenance and chronology of this simple stone tablet bear witness to the fog of uncertainty enshrouding much of London’s history before the better-documented 18th century.”
The link above explores all of the historic possibilities connected with the bas-relief illuminating briefly the problem of accurately writing history.
From the www.walks.com link
THE BLITZ – London at War
"send every bloody pump you’ve got,
the whole bloody world’s on fire"
London Fireman during a Luftwaffe raid 8 September 1940
“The dome of St. Paul’s seemed to ride the sea of fire like a great ship. Ludgate Hill was carpeted in hosepipes. Two hundred people died that night. On the north side of the cathedral 63 acres became a waste of smoking ash and rubble. Another 100 acres were completely devastated in other raids that autumn. At the finish, out of the City’s tight-packed 461 acres, 164 were reduced to ruin. And this was just 1940.” From the walks website.
As we huddled together on Ave Maria Lane in the afternoon cold, our guide gave us an overview of what life was like during the blitz. We were standing in an area that had been totally devastated, first by the Great Fire of 1666 and then by the blitz in 1940. It had been rebuilt in the 60s to popular disapproval. Proposals to again rebuild the area generated much controversy but in the early 21st century it was completed to divided acclaim and distain. Our guide seemed to think this current architecture was an improvement over the 60s design ..
http://www.independent.co.uk criticizes the new architectural proposals.
Wednesday 05 August 1992
http://www.architecture.com/ An architects defense of the new architecture
This area was mostly destroyed during the Blitz….
“One of the most exciting City developments, Paternoster Square, provides some 70,000m² of office space, retail outlets and cafes.
The Square can trace its origins to medieval Paternoster Row, where the clergy of St Paul’s once walked holding their rosary beads and reciting the ‘Paternoster’, or Lord’s Prayer (Paternoster translates as ‘Our Father’).
Soon, the area was a hub for peddlers of spiritual goods - such as rosaries and psalters (psalm books) – who relied on the passing trade of pilgrims visiting the old St Paul’s Cathedral. Mercers, stationers and lace-makers joined the mix, and the area remained a place of general business until the Great Fire of 1666.
After the fire’s destruction of much of the surrounding property, the stationers returned, the publishers moved in, and the taverns and coffee houses (including the famous Chapter coffee house) that sprung up nearby, played host to many famous authors including Oliver Goldsmith, Thomas Chatterton and Charlotte Brontë.
At the same time, the Square itself – a large open space – became the site of Newgate Meat Market, and remained so until the Central Meat Market at Smithfield opened in 1868.
In the winter of 1940, St Paul’s was bombed and the area was destroyed for a second time (several million books were lost in one night when the booksellers’ shops came under fire).
A modernist retail and office development rose up out of the ashes in the 1960s but soon fell out of popularity, with many of the units left vacant in the 1970s. A number of proposals to rebuild the Square were put forward and rejected. It was not until the Mitsubishi Estate Company commissioned Whitfield Partners in 1995 to create a master plan for a new development, which addressed both the heritage and the commercial requirements of the area, that redevelopment became a reality.
The new development restores the lines of the ancient streets surrounding the Square and reclaims the public open space that is the Square itself.
Ave Maria Lane with views of St Pauls and Paternoster Column in the area as it looks today
We walked from the tube station along Ave Maria Lane which opens onto Paternoster Square.
“This area – originally Paternoster Row – resonates with the history of publishing houses and booksellers as, in the 1940’s; this was the centre of the British publishing trade. In December 1940, the entire area was devastated during the London Blitz – but miraculously St Paul’s Cathedral was saved. An estimated 5 million printed books were lost in the ferocious fires caused by the bombing.”
The Paternoster Column
“Whitfield Partners (architects) 2003, Portland stone, Cornish granite and gilded copper (urn)
Situated at the focal point of the Square, the Paternoster Column stands 23.3m tall and is part of a ventilation system for the traffic gyratory and the car park beneath.
The classic design follows an ancient tradition - stretching back as far as imperial Rome - of marking places of significance with monumental structures.
Comprising a hexagonal stone base, a fluted Corinthian column and a gilded copper urn with flame finial, the column was designed to be the ‘centre of gravity’ for the entire Paternoster development, yet is deliberately not aligned on an axis with other architectural elements so as to create a ‘relaxed’ environment in the Square.
The column itself is a recreation of those designed by Inigo Jones for the west portico of the old St Paul’s. Destroyed during the construction of Wren’s present day cathedral, replica columns of almost identical proportions and design can still be viewed at the west, north and south porticos.
Running through the central service hole of the column are a lightening conductor and fibre optic cables for night-lighting of the urn, which was designed to provide a visual reference to a fire beacon, and thus fulfil the column’s purpose as a marker.
The urn also reflects the finials on the west towers of today’s St Paul’s and commemorates the fact that the site has been destroyed twice by fire - the Great Fire of 1666 and the Blitz of WWII
The Sheep & Shepherd
Elisabeth Frink (1930–1993) 1975, bronze on Portland stone plinth
Originally unveiled by Yehudi Menhuin in 1975, Frink’s sculpture stood at the centre of the north side of Paternoster Square until 1997 when it was moved to the Bastion High Walk (outside of the Museum of London) in advance of demolition work for the new development we see today. The work was reinstated to its present position in 2003.
It is suggested that the sculpture was inspired by Frink’s stay in the mountainous region of Cervennes (France) where sheep and shepherds are a part of the everyday landscape, and by her admiration for Picasso’s 1944 bronze, Man with Sheep. The subject chosen may also have derived from a wilful confusion on Frink’s part between the pater of Paternoster (Our Father) and pastor (shepherd).
Whatever the case, it is probable that Frink was not entirely free to choose and that influence was brought to bear, given the sculpture’s close proximity to St Paul’s. The evidence for this comes, not only from the religious connotations of the piece, but from the ‘androgynous’ looking shepherd and his flock - a characteristic not typical of Frink who was known for her well-endowed subjects.
Originally commissioned by Paternoster Development Ltd; reinstated by Mitsubishi Estate Company in 2003. http://www.paternostersquare.info/about-paternoster.aspx
Its Successions of Traders—The House of Longman—Goldsmith at Fault—Tarleton, Actor, Host, and Wit—Ordinaries around St. Paul’s: their Rules and Customs—The "Castle"—"Dolly’s"—The "Chapter" and its Frequenters—Chatterton and Goldsmith—Dr. Buchan and his Prescriptions—Dr. Gower—Dr. Fordyce—The "Wittinagemot" at the "Chapter"—The "Printing Conger"—Mrs. Turner, the Poisoner—The Church of St. Michael "ad Bladum"—The Boy in Panier Alley.
Paternoster Row, that crowded defile north of the Cathedral, lying between the old Grey Friars and the Blackfriars, was once entirely ecclesiastical in its character, and, according to Stow, was so called from the stationers and text-writers who dwelt there and sold religious and educational books, alphabets, paternosters, aves, creeds, and graces. It then became famous for its spurriers, and afterwards for eminent mercers, silkmen, and lacemen; so that the coaches of the "quality" often blocked up the whole street. After the fire these trades mostly removed to Bedford Street, King Street, and Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. In 1720 (says Strype) there were stationers and booksellers who came here in Queen Anne’s reign from Little Britain, and a good many tire-women, who sold commodes, top-knots, and other dressings for the female head. By degrees, however, learning ousted vanity, chattering died into studious silence, and the despots of literature ruled supreme. Many a groan has gone up from authors in this gloomy thoroughfare.
One only, and that the most ancient, of the Paternoster Row book-firms, will our space permit us to chronicle. The house of Longman is part and parcel of the Row. ………..
“St. Paul’s Churchyard and Neighborhood
(Note: This is taken from W. Roberts’ The Book-Hunter in London.)
The bookselling and book-hunting annals of the district which starts with St. Paul’s, and terminates at Charing Cross, might occupy a goodly-sized volume……..”
http://www.djmcadam.com/st-pauls-churchyard.html continues the story.
Victorian London - Districts - Streets - Paternoster Row
The Row, as it is called by way of pre-eminence, is the nucleus of the literary neighbourhood … How the literary man delights to haunt this place … He pauses, perhaps, before the immense emporium of the Longmans, with its fourteen windows in front, its little Ionic pilasters, and its iron crane, emblematic of the very heavy commodities in which the proprietors are sometimes compelled to deal. … Next to Longmans, the literary peripatetic will be attracted by the great extent of premises occupied by Whittaker and Co., extending half way down Ave-Maria Lane, and across to the neat but small quadrangle, with its solitary tree and little patch of grass, where the rich and influential Company of Stationers have their unpretending hall: the extensive mart for the lighter artillery of literature, under the control of Messrs Simpkin and Marshall, will also arrest his attention.
The World of London, by John Murray, in Blackwoods Magazine, July 1841
http://www.victorianlondon.org/districts/paternoster.htm continues the story
In the 16th century the neighbourhood was known for its many taverns. One of these, the Castle in Paternoster Row was kept by Richard Tarleton, the comedian who sometimes appeared at La Belle Sauvage in Ludgate Hill. The Chapter Coffee House, which later became the Old Chapter tavern, was also there. On occasions during the 1840s, while visiting the publishers Smith and Elder at their office at No. 65 Cornhill, Anne, Emily and Charlotte Brontë lodged at the Chapter Coffee House.
Before The Great Fire of 1666, mercers, silkmen and lacemen also lived here. In fact, their products were in such demand by the well-to-do that the street was often jammed with their coaches.
When the mercers moved out after The Great Fire of 1666, Paternoster Row became a centre for bookselling. In 1719, at the sign of the Ship, William Taylor published Robinson Crusoe. In 1724 Taylor’s business was purchased by Thomas Longman, founder of the Longman publishing company.
http://www.ludgatecircus.com/paternoster_square.htm lots more information and historic maps here
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I took myself to the Geffrye Museum. It was a total adventure as I had to take a bus for the first time by myself! Cruiser friend Sandi had told me to walk to Gracechurch Street and I could catch the 149 to the Geffrye. The Geffrey website gave me different directions and the London travel planner site gave me totally complicated directions, so I followed Sandi’s advice. I wasn’t sure where to get off the bus but by the time we got to the Geffrye stop, the driver and everyone on the bus were all telling me, “here’s your stop.”
I really enjoyed my visit, the tour, and the other people on the tour. Afterwards I even invited myself to join one of the women who was having a snack in the Geffrye cafe. She is a “horse person” so we could chat about that and about the tour. She was a recently retired teacher who, when taking her students places around London always reminded them to “look up.” That’s good advice in a place like London where there are so many architectural details on the buildings…if you just look up. Sharing a table isn’t something we do in the US but it really is quite nice.
I’d noticed an art supply shop with a half-price sale about a block from the Geffrye where I’d left the bus so, after leaving the Geffrye walked back for a new sketch notebook. As the day was bright and sunny and I could see the Gherkin off in the distance and knew the route back was pretty uncomplicated, I decided to walk. Shoreditch is quite an interesting place that might put folks off, but the main street had art shops and restaurants and I felt totally comfortable walking alone. So many places to explore.
All in all a really enjoyable day.
“Visitors to the Geffrye can view our permanent display of eleven period rooms which span approximately 400 years from around 1600 to the present day. There is also a walled herb garden and a series of four period gardens, chronologically arranged to reflect the museum’s period rooms, which can be visited between 1 April and 31 October. To the front of the museum there is a large garden facing onto Kingsland Road, which has recently been refurbished. Additionally, there is a restored 18th-century almshouse, open to visitors on selected days, which has been taken back to its original condition and provides a glimpse into the lives of London’s poor and elderly in the 1780s and 1880s.”
Entrance to the Geffrye : the woman walking in the front was our tour guide.
Sir Robert Geffrye left a bequest for the almshouse
“The Geffrye is set in almshouses built in 1714 by the Ironmongers’ Company, with a bequest from Sir Robert Geffrye, twice master of the Company and former Lord Mayor of London. For almost two hundred years the almshouses provided homes for around fifty poor pensioners. They are now recognised for their historic importance as Grade I listed buildings.
By the early 20th century Hoxton had become one of the most overcrowded and unsavoury parts of London, and the Ironmongers’ Company decided to sell its Kingsland Road property in order to relocate the almshouses to a healthier area. The site was bought by London County Council wanting to provide public open space in such a densely populated area. Leading members of the Arts and Crafts movement petitioned the Council not to demolish the almshouses, and it was agreed to convert the buildings into a museum which opened in 1914.
(Our tour guide said the London site of the Geffrye suffered no damage during WW2, but the new almshouses, moved a the less crowded area in Mottingham Kent were bombed.
GEFFERY’S ALMSHOUSES, at Kingsland Road, Shoreditch (1712-1910, now the site of the Geffrye Museum), Eltham (1914-1974) and Hook, Hampshire (1974-). 1712-1915 (microfilm only 1911- 15). Ms 17053- http://www.history.ac.uk/gh/18v.htm
The Battle of Britain, as it became known, was fought in the skies above Kent’s orchards, fields and villages, and it was here that Hitler’s invasion plans were first stalled, and then put off indefinitely. During the period between 12 August and 15 September 1940, wave after wave of German fighters and bombers attacked targets in Kent, and the countryside became littered with the debris of fighter aircraft from both sides. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ )
One of the almshouses, No. 14, has been restored and can now be visited. It still has most of its internal woodwork intact, including its staircase, upper floors, closets and panelling and is furnished to show the living conditions of poor pensioners in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Visitors are able to compare the sparse furnishings and few personal possessions of the generally poor elderly residents of the 18th century with the rather more comfortable surroundings of the better-off pensioners of the late 19th century, and with those of middle class homes of the time in the museum’s main displays.
Displays about the history of the Geffrye almshouses, philanthropic and social housing in East London and the kind of people who lived there, can be found in two further rooms and the basement.
A History of the Geffrye Almshouses by Dr Kathy Haslam is available from the museum shop.
Residents of the Almshouses were required to attend chapel.
Waiting for the 12 noon tour. I was early and first in line; it was first come first served. The tours are only offered a few times each month with the size of the group limited to 15 people which is pushing it given the size of the rooms to be visited. I had arrived just after the 11 am tour had started so spent a bit of time looking at the museum display of furnishing from different periods of history. But my main aim was to be one of those 15 people for the almshouse tour, so by 11:40 I was waiting in this chapel to sign up and pay my 2£ 50p . By the time the tour actually started I’m sure there were a few more than 15; but everyone there really wanted to be there so no one was left behind. I’m finding as I take part in different tours around London that the folks who show up for them are usually quite nice and their questions generate more stories from the guides than one might hear otherwise.
Chapel was required of the pensioners housed here. Our guide said that, especially in the 1790s most people would have been Protestant but no one was prohibited because of their religious beliefs. She also said that the Jewish community would probably have had its own provisions for the needy and I seem to remember that from our Jewish east end tour.
Stairway and introductory almshouse room.
“Stepping in through the double doors from the yard shaded by great trees, you find yourself in a staircase that once led to four residences on two storeys. “
“On the ground floor you enter the austere eighteenth century room, bare boards, lead-grey painted walls, a few unframed prints, a small dining table, a stick-back chair set by the brick range and a stump bed in the corner. Although this single room – with a tiny closet for preparing food – might have been occupied by a couple, it does not seem cramped and is comparable to, or even larger than, rooms I have visited in care homes for old people today.”
Our guide said that that cloths were hung over the bed to catch bugs dropping on anyone sleeping and that the mattresses were kept off the floor for that reason; avoid crawling bugs. She also explained that at that time disease wasn’t connected to bacteria and germs or the effect of soap on both so soap was looked at as a luxury and taxed making it unaffordable to most people. Later when the connection was made, the taxes were eliminated. But many pensioners lived to very old ages.
The pantry where household items were kept.
All residents were expected to keep the rooms clean and help with communal cleaning. In the early years there were outdoor wells and privies that had to be cleaned. But each room had a fireplace where food could be cooked and for warmth. I thought the rooms were quite charming actually as did most people on the tour. We all did appreciate the work of living with no indoor plumbing.
A communal “washing tub” for clothes from the earliest days. The later residents shared this one communal toilet for four rooms, but I’m sure it was seen as a vast improvement over the outdoor privies.
“One flight of stairs above, you enter a room of the eighteen eighties and the immediate difference is that there are more things, more furniture and more trinkets. The brick range is replaced by a cast iron grate while a brass bedstead gleams in the corner - and two brackets above the fireplace carry the innovation of gaslight.”
Brass bed and pitcher and basin for washing now that soap was a common commodity
A funny (to me) question was raised by one of the men in the tour. He wanted to know why, as by the late 1800s most residents were single, genteel women, would anyone need a bed that big. The rooms weren’t limited to single women, but the residents had to be over the age of 56 when they arrived. And by the later periods, a small rent was also charged.
A demonstration of the gas lamps
Each room had a large window in the main room and a small window in the pantry which I really liked.
I remember buying Dundee Marmalade as a splurge as it was more expensive than Smuckers , Welches or Kroger brands. I especially like their grapefruit marmalade as well as the jars! I really wanted to pick up each item and see where it was made; but that wasn’t allowed which is probably why the stuff is still there in one piece.
Glass decanters for port or sherry and books to read. What more could one want?
Signs of the Ironmongers in Shoreditch
1576 THE LONDON GAZETTE, MARCH 20, 1883.
The Bankruptcy Act, 1869.
In the London Bankruptcy Court.
In the Matter of Proceedings for Liquidation by Arrangement
or Composition with Creditors, instituted by
Edward Welle, late of tbe Commercial Iron Work?,
Shorediteb, in the county of Middlesex, of No. 26, Queen
Victoria-street, in (he city of London, now of No. 5,
Dray ton Park, Islington, in tbe county of Middlesex*
Iron Mercban*, James Smith, late of the Commercial
Iron Works, and No. 26, Queen Victoria-street aforesaid,
DOW of No. 12, Chapel-street, Milton-street; in the city
of London, and Allerton Honse, South Hornsey, in tbe
county of Middlesex, Iron Merchant, and Henry James
Fenwick Gale, late of the Commercial Iron Works, and
No. 26, Queen Victoria-street aforesaid, now of No. 12,
Chapel-street aforesaid, and of Lincoln Honse, Ponder’s
End, in the coutty of Middlesex, Iron Merchant, lately
carrying on business in partnership together, undt-r the
firm of Wells-and Company, at the Commercial Iron
^Works, and 26, Queen Victoria-street aforesaid, and as to
the said James Smith and Henry James Fen-wick Gale,
carrying on a separate business as Dealers in Honse
Property, under the firm of Smith and Gale, at No. 12,
Chapel-street aforesaid. http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/25213/pages/1576/page.pdf
“There are a few interesting Victorian buildings in Shoreditch that managed to survive both Hitler and 60s re-developers like this former ironworks. Shame someone cut a window through that decorative tiling.”
“Legend has it that the name is derived from Shore’s Ditch, being the last resting place of Jane Shore the mistress of Edward IV who is supposed to have either died or been buried in a ditch in the area. What’s more likely is that the name comes from Sewer Ditch.”
This blog opened with the paragraph below which I found really interesting as well as reading about his visit to Shoreditch as it was my first visit there. It’s an interesting area; I walked back from the Geffrye as I knew it was a pretty strait shot back and I could see the Gherkin and the Shard so couldn’t get too lost.
My friend Brian’s studio is located in a redeveloped Victorian match factory, the Perseverance Works. This was the sort of place where the exposure to white phosphorous in the matchmaking process caused Phossy Jaw, a nasty disease that caused the teeth and jaw to rot away, before causing death from massive organ failure. The phosphorus made the affected jaw bone to glow in the dark, hence the name. The use of white phosphorus over the more expensive, but far less toxic red phosphorus was only banned in the UK in 1910, after a lot of campaigning from the Salvation Army and other philanthropic groups.” Shipscookstuff again….
While doing my reading about the Geffrye, almshouses in general, and the ironmongers, I came across the following entry from the Spitalfields Life blog. I’ve quoted it during my write up but posted it intact below as it’s a good read.
“Visiting the Mariners’ almhouses at Trinity Green in Whitechapel last week filled me with curiousity to discover more of the former life of these places, and so I sought out the Geffrye almhouses in Shoreditch which are now the Geffrye Museum, where a couple of dwellings have been restored as they were once inhabited. After three centuries, the bewigged statue of Sir Robert Geffrye – the enterprising Cornishman who came to London at the age of sixteen, enjoyed a prosperous career as an ironmonger and was declared Lord Mayor of London in 1685 – still presides with a satisfied smile upon this fine terrace built in 1714 at his bequest by the Ironmongers’ Company to provide homes for “poor people of good character over the age of fifty-six.”
At that time, much of the land North of Old St was given over to nurseries and market gardens, punctuated by clay pits and kilns for tile making. Quieter and healthier than the City of London, it was the ideal location for almshouses, with the Drapers Company and the Frameknitters company also building to the North and South of the Geffrye site. Built by carpenter Robert Burford, the fourteen Geffrye almhouses were constructed of good quality materials, “of oake or good yellow firr,” and “good plain tyles with heart of oak lathes,” while windows were glazed with “the best Castle (Newcastle) glass,” and each door had “a stoute lock, key and bolt and latch and good hinges.” The buildings were lacking in ostentation, with minimal ornamentation upon the interior where each dwelling consisted of a single unfurnished room of thirteen by fifteen feet.
And for two hundred years, the Geffrye almhouses served their noble purpose until the rowdy city began to impinge upon the delicate sensibility of the elderly residents and, in 1908, the almshouse matron, Annie Young, complained that “All kinds of objectionable rubbish were thrown over the wall…rows between men and women were constantly to be seen…and the children who ran about the yards seemed scarcely to be human.” In 1912, the Ironmongers Company transferred their worthy pensioners to the more isolated and peaceful location of Mottingham in Kent and sold the almshouses to the London County Council who converted them into a museum of furniture, reflecting the location of Shoreditch as the centre of the furniture industry then.
Yet one dwelling remained unaltered with its staircase and internal woodwork intact, in use as the museum warden’s house until 1996, and this has now been restored with one room as it might have been in 1780 and another as it might have been in 1880. Stepping in through the double doors from the yard shaded by great trees, you find yourself in a staircase that once led to four residences on two storeys. On the ground floor you enter the austere eighteenth century room, bare boards, lead-grey painted walls, a few unframed prints, a small dining table, a stick-back chair set by the brick range and a stump bed in the corner. Although this single room – with a tiny closet for preparing food – might have been occupied by a couple, it does not seem cramped and is comparable to, or even larger than, rooms I have visited in care homes for old people today.
A list of residents from the seventeen eighties reveals that most were small tradesmen from London who enjoyed modest success in their working lives, and many were able to continue some form of piecework to supplement their small pensions. They were obligated to keep their rooms clean, to be in before the gates locked at night, to refrain from blasphemy or keeping poultry on the front lawn, and adultery and lewdness were both punishable by expulsion, yet the evidence of the records shows that the apparent strict regulations appear to have been followed leniently. No-one was expelled.
One flight of stairs above, you enter a room of the eighteen eighties and the immediate difference is that there are more things, more furniture and more trinkets. The brick range is replaced by a cast iron grate while a brass bedstead gleams in the corner - and two brackets above the fireplace carry the innovation of gaslight. In 1898, Henry Barrett the gatekeeper recorded an incident with matron’s new gas oven, “I met with an Axedon today. There Exploded in the matron’s House the Gas. I Filled the Gas oven in the stove & I opened the Door & it exploded in my face, Burned my Face & Hair & Whiskers & Burned off my Eye Lashes. It was God’s Good Providence my Eyes was not Hurt.” Looking from the window out into the tiny courtyard where once fifty people resided in these almshouse, I could only wonder at the drama occasioned by the exploding oven in such an isolated community – where few people left except feet first and some were simply transferred direct to the ironmongers’ cemetery conveniently placed within the grounds at the end of the terrace.
But in spite of the exploding ovens and rowdy neighbours, census records reveal that the Geffrye pensioners lived far beyond average life expectancy at the time – in this shangri la on the Kinsgland Rd – as Henry Barrett recorded in his journal,“Miss Daniel Died after seven years Bedrid, I think near a hundred years old.” Even today, with the steady flow of visitors and school parties to the Geffrye Museum, there is an enduring air of peace in this place that is instantly restored once the crowds have passed through the yard, and inside the almhouses you feel it pervasively, in these quiet rooms where people have sat out time.” http://spitalfieldslife.com/2011/05/04/at-the-geffrye-almhouses/
The Almshouse Association is a support charity representing 1,700 independent almshouse
charities throughout the United Kingdom providing homes for over 35,000 people
Sir Robert Geffery’s Trust Reg. Charity No. 219153
Sir Robert Geffery was twice Master of the Company and was Lord Mayor of London in 1685. Born in the village of Landrake in Cornwall, he died in London in 1704 having made his fortune in overseas trade. He left a substantial endowment for almshouses which were built in Shoreditch, east London. These were sold in 1910 to London County Council and now house the Geffrye Museum. The Company then built new almshouses at Mottingham in Kent, which in turn were sold, in 1972, to the Greater London Council.
Today the Trust owns two almshouses in Hampshire, one at Hook built in 1976 and enlarged in 1987 and one at Basingstoke which was opened in 1984. These provide sheltered housing for 125 retired people of limited means. There are resident Wardens at both Homes, with the overall management carried out from Ironmongers’ Hall.
Grants are made by the Trust for relief in need, focussing on educational projects for children and young people in disadvantaged areas. A bursary is given to support a student at the City of London School for Girls. http://www.ironmongers.org/company_sir_robert_gefferys_trust.htm
http://www.ironmongers.org/company_livery_companies.htm explains the history of the various trade guilds and their place in British History.
http://www.ironmongers.org/almshouses_gefferys_fields.htm describes the modern “almshouse” and the fee to live there.
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This email concludes our Little Venice through Camden walk. According to the Canal Trust website where I found the directions for the walk, completed it was 4.5 miles. We missed the final few stops but must have walked more than 4 miles just the part we did. At least it felt that way. But it was lots of fun and good exercise. Just wish we’d brought some snacks!
6. Camden Lock
Ahead you will see the Feng Shang Chinese floating restaurant moored in Cumberland Basin. This arm of the canal used to stretch towards Euston station but was largely filled in with bomb rubble after the Second World War. At this point, the canal takes a sharp turn to the left towards Camden. From Cumberland Basin, Camden Lock is approximately five or ten minutes’ walk along the towpath, should you wish to make a detour. Camden is best known for its alternative and vibrant market scene, which centres on a cobbled courtyard just off the canal. Camden Lock Market is particularly lively at weekends and is a great place to break from the walk for shopping and refreshments.
It felt like more than two miles since we’d left Little Venice
“In recent years, Camden has ditched its grubby image to become one of the capital’s most fashionable addresses. The moment you step outside the tube station, Camden attacks the senses. Bass thumps from the market stalls’ speakers, the scent of street food and incense permeates the air, and goths, punks, pushers and tourists shove past, giving the area an unorthodox charm. Come to Camden for the atmosphere, but stay for the cheap restaurants and awesome live music scene”
On the right person I think this would look great.
Mini motorbikes as seating for eating the tons of available street food.
Really more crowded than we like so, after lunch at a “sit down place” we continued our journey
Looks like mobile homes or RVs backed up to the canal, but they’re apartments. Probably expensive apartments.
We retraced our steps back to the original path to continue on.
When I was 21 I read The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath and had, during my early library years catalogued Moon-Whales a book of kid poems by Ted Hughes so we were off to find the locations connected with them on the next part of our walk.
7. Fitzroy Road
For those that don’t want to visit Camden, the circular walk leaves the towpath on the left, immediately after the rail and road bridge. Up the stairs, you will emerge on Gloucester Avenue. For those who detoured to Camden, retrace your footsteps back past the Pirate Castle to the rail and road bridge and take the stairs on the right immediately before the bridge. At the top of the path, continue in the same direction, keeping The Engineer pub on your left. Take the third exit on the left - Fitzroy Road, crossing Chalcot Road, to No 23 Fitzroy Road on the left. Number 23 Fitzroy Road is the former home of the Irish poet William Yeats. The poet and writer Sylvia Plath also lived in the upstairs maisonette of 23 Fitzroy Road until 11 February 1963, when she ended her life.
You had to look up to find these two landmarks…. And we almost missed them.
W.B Yeats and Sylvia Plath
“By November 1962, she thought she had found the ideal place for herself and her two children: a maisonette at 23 Fitzroy Road in a house once inhabited by WB Yeats, complete with a blue plaque bearing his name. She closed up the house in Devon and in December, back in London, she was declaring herself to be the happiest she had been for months. Each morning she would get up at four o’clock and write in a white heat the Ariel poems that would subsequently make her famous. Although her mother implored her to come back to America, Sylvia maintained that she was exactly where she wanted to be: London. It was, she said, ‘the one city in the world I’d like to live in, with its fine doctors, nice neighbours, parks, theatres and the BBC’.”
Then, on 11 February 1963, during one of the worst winters on record, Plath, in the grip of a deep depression, prepared to end her life. First, she made sure Frieda, almost three, and Nicholas, just one, were safe in their high-sided cots in their bedroom on the top floor. Then she placed two cups of milk and some bread and butter next to them, opened the window and sealed the door frame with tape, pushing tea towels into the gaps. In the kitchen she did the same, put a little folded cloth in the oven and knelt down. She placed her head inside, turned on the gas, lapsed into unconsciousness and died. Poignantly, just a few weeks before, Plath, who was only 30, had written: ‘When I came to my beloved Primrose Hill, with the golden leaves, I was full of such joy.’ ES
8. Primrose Hill
Return to Chalcot Road and turn left. Opposite Chalcot Square is another former residence of Sylvia Plath. Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes lived at 3 Chalcot Square from February 1960 - August 1961. At the end of Chalcot Road, bear left into Chalcot Crescent with its beautiful Georgian houses. At the end of Chalcot Crescent, turn right into Regent’s Park Road, cross the road and enter Primrose Hill. Following the path through the park to the top of the hill you can admire the panoramic views across the capital. Primrose Hill is popular with kite fliers and frisbee flingers but is also ideal for relaxation or maybe a picnic.
“Sylvia and Ted settled in Primrose Hill, in a small, unfurnished flat at 3 Chalcot Square, which cost six guineas a week,” http://www.standard.co.uk/
6 guineas = 6 L 6 shillings pre 1971 I think
One of the downsides of living in the city, even then, was lack of space. The flat in Chalcot Square — where, in July 2000, English Heritage erected a blue plaque in Plath’s memory — comprised a bedroom, sitting room, kitchen and bathroom. ‘We are dreaming of a house where I can shout out to Ted from one end to the other and he won’t be able to hear me,’ she said. The price of a freehold house on Fitzroy Road, her favourite street in Primrose Hill, was £9,250 and although the area was, she said, ‘quite slummy’, she knew it was on the up.
3 Chalcot Square home of Sylvia Plath and English Poet Ted Hughes
“Al Alvarez, in his classic study of suicide, “The Savage God,” describes the scene at that Chalcot Square apartment. “It was so small that everything seemed sideways on.” But there was room for the essential: “A typewriter stood on a little table by the window, and they took turns at it, each working shifts while the other minded the baby.” http://www.nytimes.com/
NW1, Chalcot Crescent, 37
“Dr Rizal lodged here in 1888 with the Beckett family on a weekly rent of £2. On 19 June 2011, to celebrate Rizal’s 150th birth anniversary the London Chapter of the Knights of Rizal and the Philippine Embassy held a heritage walk from an event at the British Museum (where Rizal had been a registered reader in the Reading Room) and laid a floral offering at this plaque.” http://www.londonremembers.com/memorials/dr-rizal
José Rizal 1861-1896
José Rizal, son of a Filipino father and a Chinese mother, came from a wealthy family. Despite his family’s wealth, they suffered discrimination because neither parent was born in the peninsula. Rizal studied at the Ateneo, a private high school, and then to the University of St. Thomas in Manila. He did his post graduate work at the University of Madrid in 1882. For the next five years, he wandered through Europe discussing politics wherever he went. In 1886, he studied medicine at the University of Heidelberg and wrote his classic novel Noli me Tangere, which condemned the Catholic Church in the Philippines for its promotion of Spanish colonialism. Immediately upon its publication, he became a target for the police who even shadowed him when he returned to the Philippines in 1887. He left his country shortly thereafter to return to Spain where he wrote a second novel, El Filibusterismo (1891), and many articles in his support of Filipino nationalism and his crusade to include representatives from his homeland in the Spanish Cortes.
He returned to Manila in 1892 and created the Liga Filipina, a political group that called for peace change for the islands. Nevertheless, Spanish officials were displeased and exiled Rizal to the island of Mindanao. During his four years there, he practiced medicine, taught students, and collected local examples of flora and fauna while recording his discoveries. Even though he lost touched with others who were working for Filipino independence, he quickly denounced the movement when it became violent and revolutionary. After Andrés Bonifacio issued the Grito de Balintawak in 1896, Rizal was arrested, convicted of sedition, and executed by firing squad on December 30, 1896.
Following the revolution, Rizal was made a saint by many religious cults while the United States authorities seized on his non-violent stance and emphasized his views on Filipino nationalism rather than those of the more action-oriented Emilio Aguinaldo and Andrés Bonifacio.
“He moved to 122 Regent’s Park Road (1) in Primrose Hill, which is where this walk begins. The door was always open on a Sunday and all the communists and socialists of note would come over. The editors of the Social Democrat newspaper in Tufnell Park would come across the railway tracks and there were proper parties, lots of beer and loud debate.”
http://www.timeout.com/media/pdf/hampstead.pdf Walking with Communists in Hempstead Heath
We climbed up to the viewing area on Primrose Hill
Off in the distance are St Paul’s, the car melting “Walkie Talkie” building and the Shard.
We could see lots of familiar places, but getting to them was another story. By the time we reached this point it was 3 pm. We needed to be at St Paul’s by 4:30 to get seats for the Evensong concert. The trick was finding our way out of the park and to a Tube Station.
Thankfully a “sort of helpful” fellow driving his dog home from the park gave us directions after first making fun of our American English. He was an old chap so maybe should have been more polite than to do that. So we walked and walked and walked and finally found the St Johns Wood Station. We managed to get to St Paul’s early enough for a “loo stop” but not for coffee. Unfortunately where we were sitting the acoustics weren’t great so after 15 minutes or so we decided to leave. It had been a long day which had started out sunny and almost too warm but ended with drizzle and cold.
There are a few more places of note along the path that maybe we’ll finish one day. But with so much to do, we may move on to other adventures.
A future walk…..maybe one day
9. St Johns Wood High Street
Walking over the hill, take the left path and head down the hill the other side. At the T-junction in the path, turn left and exit the park on St Edmunds Terrace. Walk down St Edmunds Terrace and over Avenue Road into Allitsen Road. Continue straight on Allitsen Road, (follow the cycle route rather than the car route) to the end where it meets St John’s Wood High Street. Turn left. On your right you will pass 45a, the former home of composer Benjamin Britten. Britten worked on his first opera, ‘Peter Grimes’ whilst living here and the opera was an immediate success when it was first performed in 1945.
10. Liberal Jewish Synagogue
Turn right off St John’s Wood High Street into Wellington Place. At the end of Wellington Place, cross Wellington Road and turn left towards the roundabout where you will turn right into St John’s Wood Road. Continuing down this road, you will pass, on the right, the world-famous Lords Cricket Ground, home of England’s cricket team since 1813. It is widely rumoured that soil excavated from the Maida Hill tunnel during the creation of the Regent’s Canal was used as top soil for the Lords Cricket Ground. Opposite Lord’s is the Liberal Jewish Synagogue which was built in 1925. Bomb damage during the war forced the synagogue council into a major rebuilding project. It now features works of art, including a Holocaust sculpture by award-winning artist Anish Kapoor.
11. Hamilton Terrace
Continue down St John’s Wood Road. A short detour at this point will take you to the Abbey Road studios made famous by the Beatles but we are carrying on to Hamilton Terrace. At Hamilton Terrace you will find two Blue Plaques. The first, at Number 17, is the former home of Sir Joseph Bazalgette, the great Victorian civil engineer best known for designing and building the hundreds of miles of underground sewers in London. It is claimed that Bazalgette saved more lives than any other single Victorian public official. Number 20, on the opposite side of the road, was home to William Strang, artist and founder member of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers. Another former resident of number 20 was Sir George Alexander Macfarren, a prolific Victorian composer, who lived and died here in 1887.
12. Warwick Avenue
Return to St John’s Wood road and turn right. At the junction with Maida Vale, cross the road and into Clifton Gardens. Number nine Clifton Gardens was home to Professor Sir John Ambrose Fleming, the electrical engineer, whose invention of the thermionic valve paved the way for modern communications such as radio and telephone. Continue down Clifton Gardens and you will arrive at your starting point of Warwick Avenue tube station.
4.5 miles / 7.24 Kilometers felt way longer than that…..
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